Эссе (сочинение) на английском

В данном разделе находятся готовые образцы эссе (сочинений) на английском языке, предназначенные, прежде всего, для тех, кто сдает экзамен по данному языку. Также вы найдете описание всех правил написания качественного эссе (сочинения), узнаете важные нюансы и тонкости всего процесса.

Уметь писать эссе (сочинение) на английском языке – это чрезвычайно важное и сложное умение. Здесь в полной мере проявляется ваше знание английского языка – богатство и разнообразие лексического запаса, а также виртуозное владение грамматическими структурами.

Сегодня умению писать эссе (сочинение) придается большое значение, так как оно является важной составляющей частью экзаменов по английскому языку, в частности ЕГЭ. Часто одно слово, оборот или структурный элемент эссе (сочинения) может решить судьбу участника экзамена.

В данном разделе вы сможете найти чрезвычайно полезное руководство к тому, как вообще написать классное эссе (сочинение), которое может принести вам максимальное количество баллов. Следуя предложенным рекомендациям, ваше эссе (сочинение) будет выглядеть очень достойно.

Также вашему вниманию предлагается ряд образцовых эссе (сочинений), которые обязательно помогут вам научиться писать свои собственные.

Темы и образцы сочиненийЭто важно!

An early choice of a career path is the key to success
All people want to be successful in life and they expect their career to give them all the good things of life. The question is when it is better to make a career choice. Some people believe that career decisions should be made at an early age, while others are sure that one should take some time and think it out.

Fast food is the food of the future
It is difficult to imagine our life without fast food. It is gradually forcing out the traditional cuisine, and many people are sure that fast food will dominate in the future.

New information technologies cannot make one smarter
As a matter of fact, we live in the age of information technologies, varying in complexity, size, and purpose. Personal computers, computer nets, laptops, smartphones are great inventions used by people every day. The question is whether these gadgets make mankind smarter.

Studying online is better than going to a regular class
The modern world is experiencing great changes in almost every sphere of life including education. Nowadays, young people have a variety of educational systems. Online classes are becoming more and more popular.

Exams motivate students to study harder
If you go to school or university, you are faced with a number of exams. Basically, these exams are supposed to test your knowledge and skills. Also, they may motivate you to study harder.

Sport is the best way to reduce stress
Our life is full of stress. Many people live under the press of economic, social and other problems. These people find different ways to get rid of stress, and one of them is sport.

Chinese will replace English as an international language
At any age there are languages that dominate all over the world. These languages are spoken and understood by the majority of people. Nowadays, English enjoys the most popularity, yet Chinese seems to have better perspectives.

Fast food outlets should be closed
Fast food is a flourishing modern industry conquering the whole world. It is not top-secret that this kind of food is far from being healthy. It causes serious diseases like obesity, cancer, diabetes, and, for that matter, many people want fast food outlets to be closed everywhere.

Honesty is the best policy
From an early age we have been taught to be honest with people around us. Our parents and teachers always make us tell the truth and disapprove of a lie. Yet many of us consider honesty not to be the best policy.

Family is the most important thing in life
People put much value upon different things, for example, money, freedom, friends, etc. But it is often stated that family has to be on top of all things.

It is difficult to understand jokes from other countries
Everybody likes to laugh that is why he/she often watches comedies and humorous shows, reads funny stories. Some people consume all this content no matter where it comes from, others ignore foreign humour because they find it difficult to understand.

Money cannot make one happy
Everyone wants to be rich and happy. Some people see the direct connection between money and happiness, others consider them to be two different things.

The best way to lose weight is following a diet
There are many ways to loose weight, and following a diet is one of the most popular ones. But is being on a diet the best strategy to grow thin?

It is better to read a book than to watch its film version
Nowadays, more and more people neglect books and prefer watching their film versions. The question is whether it is a positive tendency or not.

Clothes people are wearing can influence their behaviour
We cannot imagine our life without clothes, the main function of which is protective. Clothes protect us from cold and hot weather, from rain and snow and from other negative effects of the environment. Also, clothes are considered to influence people’s behaviour.

A person who is fluent in a foreign language can easily teach it
Nowadays, learning foregn languages is becoming more and more popular. Thus language teachers are in great demand everywhere. Many people, who are fluent in languages but are not educational specialists, are tempted to tackle the teaching.

Virtual Internet communication results in losing real-life social skills
New technologies are developing at high speed these days, and their development is unstoppable. One of the most influential technologies is the Internet penetrating into every aspect of people’s life and endangering their real-life social skills.

It is better to be a leader of a group than to be a simple member
All members of our society can be divided into two categories – leaders and ordinary members. Their functions, levels of responsibility and rewards are different. While leaders usually have high standards of living, ordinary people do with limited amenities of life.

Children should be able to choose which subjects to learn at school
At school children are supposed to learn many subjects. Most of them are compulsory, that is why boys and girls often make a stand against them and say they want to choose subjects on their own.

It is better to learn distantly than to go to traditional school
Technological progress has caused an argument about education. The thing is that some people believe that distant learning is better, and other people stick to the point that going to school is the only way to get good education.

Some people think that extreme sports help to build character
Nowadays more and more people go in for extreme sports like skateboarding, base jumping, parachute jumping, mountaineering and others. They believe that extreme sports help to build character.

Good books are those books that all people like and understand
Nowadays there is a great variety of literary writings varying in genre, volume, conceptual meaning, and so on. Some of them are recognized as good and worth reading without fail. But the question is how people manage to grade books and select good ones.

Virtual travelling is better than the real thing
Nowadays the virtual world is gradually becoming an essential part of our life. On the Internet, there are a lot of photos and video presentations of different countries and cities so that you do not need to go and see them with your own eyes.

Life is becoming more and more dangerous
Life is not fixed, and our living conditions are constantly changing. The question is whether they are changing for the better or the worse.

Some people think that to get a good education one should go abroad
If you want to be a successful person, you have to get a good education abroad or in this country. What option is the best?

Public libraries are becoming less popular and they will soon disappear
Public libraries are supposed to store paper books and lend them to everyone who wants to borrow them. But modern technologies allow you to get a book you need without going to libraries.

In any occupation discipline is more important than talent
Everyone wants to be successful in his or her occupation. The question is what the person needs more – discipline or talent.

Some people think that to get a good education one should go abroad
If you want to be a successful person, you have to get a good education abroad or in this country. What option is the best?

Only people who earn a lot of money can be successful
All people in the world want to be successful. Most of them are convinced that success means much money.

Every city and every town should have a zoo
It is always fun to visit a zoo. Both children and grown-ups like to watch different animals: mammals, reptiles and others. The problem is that not every city and every town has a zoo.

Fast food kills national culinary traditions
Fast food is a fast-growing industry including thousands of restaurants and cafes throughout the country. It may seem that fast food is killing national culinary traditions.

Some people think that you can have only one true friend
Friendship is one of the greatest phenomena of people’s life. The true friend is always ready to help and support us in any situation. Is it possible to have many true friends?

Some people think that young people should follow in their parents’ footsteps when choosing a profession
Choosing a profession is a great problem because its solution affects almost every aspects of a person’s future life. To be on the safe side, many young people follow in their parents’ footsteps. Are they right or not?

Some people think that learning foreign languages is a waste of time and money
Learning foreign languages is becoming more and more popular nowadays. A number of language schools and teachers is constantly growing up. But there are some people think that learning foreign languages is a waste of time and money.

A pupil cannot study effectively without a computer
The computer is one of the greatest inventions of all times. It helps us to work, relax, and study. Computer technologies are widely used in education by both teachers and pupils. It is believed that computers help them to be more effective.

Does love at first sight really exist? Is it a charming romantic fiction or a reality?
Love is a nice feeling that is the reason of durable family ties. If two persons love each other they are much more likely to reach mutual understanding and overcome difficulties of life.

The Internet is one of the greatest inventions of mankind. Still, it is considered to be dangerous to many people.
Nowadays, almost every home has access to the Internet. We use the Internet for various purposes: gaining necessary information, taking part in communities, and even making money.

More and more people are choosing to live in cities. But some people take up residence in the country.
Nowadays, there’s a tendency for active young people to leave rural areas for towns and cities. That is the reason why the population of the villages is thinning down now.

Some people prefer to have big families, but the others come to nothing more than only one child
Family is a basic constituent of any nation. The well-being of the nation depends on the well-being of each family. A lot of factors make a family happy, and children are among of them. But how many children does a family need to be perfectly happy?

Well-developed industry ensures the well-being of the whole country and its citizens. But industrial growth is often followed by aggravation of environmental problems.
Industrial development plays a large role in prosperity of any country. I doubt whether the country could do without leading industries, such as: heavy and light industry, power engineering, extractive industry, heavy engineering, chemical industry, etc.

As is well known, going in for sport is extremely health-giving. However, many professional athletes suffer from diseases caused by intense exercises.
Nice shape, great stamina, bulging muscles are the dreams of most people. These dreams may come true thanks to sport.

Fast food is perhaps the quickest way to satisfy your hunger. But according to many experts, fast food can cause serious illnesses: obesity, gastritis, indigestion, pancreatitis, etc.
You can hardly find a person who never heard about global fast food chains, such as McDonald’s, Subways, Burger King and so on. Nowadays, fast food industry is one of the most flourishing businesses all over the world.

Not anyone who knows a foreign language can be an interpreter
Nowadays, being an interpreter is one of the most prestigious occupations. A lot of young people dream of becoming an interpreter, that’s why they study foreign languages very actively. Many of them achieve a good level of competence.

School leavers should take a gap year before entering university
Many high school students take a gap year before entering university. This is a year in which they usually travel abroad and see the world to broaden their horizons. However, some people believe it’s better for them to go straight to university.

Team sports help people develop a stronger character than individual sports do
There are many benefits to playing both team and individual sports. Apart from getting some exercise and improving your physical abilities, you can learn about your strengths and weakness and feel great about your accomplishments on the track or field. However, some people believe that team sports help develop a person’s character better.

People have become too dependent on technology
These days, people use technology to do many things. They use computers at work, mobile phones for communication, and television to watch programmes. These devices are useful, but have people become too dependent on them?

Governments should limit the size of sugary drink containers in order to improve public health
Whenever you visit a supermarket, there is always a huge selection of soft drinks. These drinks are popular because they’re full of sugar, which makes them taste great. It’s become a problem for some people who have gained weight from drinking them. So, should governments limit the size of the containers these drinks are sold in?

People shouldn’t be allowed to work from home because it’s less productive than being in the office
More and more people are working from home rather than in an office. It has become easier to work at home because your work can be done on a computer and emailed into the office. But is this good for productivity?

The production and sale of genetically-modified food should be banned
In an effort to improve our food supply, scientists have discovered ways to genetically modify food so that it grows faster and is less susceptible to disease. But should the production and sale of genetically-modified food be banned?

Filmgoers should rely on reviews when choosing a film to see
Going to the cinema is a popular pastime that nearly everyone loves doing. It seems that every week, a dozen new films are released, and filmgoers are curious about which ones are worth seeing. Should filmgoers rely on reviews when choosing a film to see?

Pushing children to achieve robs them of their childhood
Our world has become very competitive, and many parents want to do their best to prepare their children for success in life. Do parents push their children too hard when they’re young, taking away a happy childhood in the process?

Just as teachers assess their students, so students should assess their teachers
It is a teacher’s job to assess students’ performance in class. They must mark students’ work and give them feedback on their progress. Should students also be allowed to assess their teachers on their performance?

It’s always best to wear a business suit when you have an interview for a job
Getting a job takes a lot of effort, as you have to prepare yourself to answer a lot of questions about your skills and your history. You also have to look your best at the interview. Should you always wear a business suit to an interview?

Сейчас мы остановимся на самых важных моментах при написании развернутого высказывания, т.е. эссе (сочинения). Эти заметки основаны на рекомендациях ФИПИ (федерального института педагогических измерений) и на реальной практике оценивания сочинений экспертами региональных комиссий. Для разбора всех нюансов воспользуемся реальной экзаменационной темой: “An early choice of a career path is the key to success”.

1) Правильное понимание темы. Прежде всего, во время проверки сочинения эксперт должен выставить баллы по главному критерию – “решение коммуникативной задачи”, а проще говоря, эксперт должен оценить содержание вашей работы. Оно должно полностью соответствовать заданной теме. По этому критерию вы можете получить от нуля до трех баллов. Если вы не попали в тему, то получаете ноль баллов по данному критерию и тогда вообще все сочинение оценивается в ноль (хотя в идеале можно на нем заработать 14 баллов). Промахнуться мимо темы гораздо проще, чем вам представляется. Так, рассматриваемая нами тема “An early choice of a career path is the key to success” отправила в абсолютный ноль треть всех сочинений, потому что речь в них шла в основном про плюсы и минусы (преимущества и недостатки) раннего выбора карьеры, хотя надо было посмотреть на зависимость раннего выбора карьеры и успеха. Проще говоря, надо было ответить на вопрос: Правда ли, что чем раньше определился с профессией, тем больше шансов на успех в жизни, или нет? Гарантирует ли ранний выбор профессии успех в жизни или нет? Является ли ранний выбор профессии причиной (фактором) успеха в жизни или нет?

2) План. В КИМах, т.е. в контрольно-измерительных материалах с заданиями, после темы сочинения следует его план, состоящий из пяти пунктов. Первый пункт – введение, второй – собственное мнение с двумя-тремя аргументами, третий – противоположная точка зрения с одним-двумя аргументами, четвертый – несогласие с противоположной точкой зрения и контраргументация, пятый – заключение. Запомните: менять последовательность пунктов нельзя. Бывает так, что уже во введении ученик заявляет о своей точки зрения, чего делать нельзя, так как выражение своего мнения – это второй пункт, а не первый.

3) Введение. В плане самый первый пункт звучит так: “Make an introduction (state the problem)”. Ключевым словом здесь является problem. Многие совершенно не понимают этого момента, пишут непонятно что и допускают критическую содержательную ошибку. Что такое “проблема”? Это разногласие, несовпадение позиций, разные взгляды, противоречие по поводу какого-либо вопроса. Так вот во введении вы должны заявить о существующем противоречии. Касательно темы “An early choice of a career path is the key to success” сделать это можно, например, так: Some people regard an early career choice as the key to success, while others tend to think that success does not depend on early career decisions. Если во введении не представлена оппозиция мнений, то это большой минус для содержания. Часто у многих введение представляет собой общие слова по теме типа: “All people want to be successful in life and most of them tend to make career decisions as early as possible. They regard early decisions as the key to success. Are they right or not?” Подобное введение, несмотря на его языковую правильность и логичность, абсолютно не годится. В нем нет констатации проблемы, не заявлено никакое противоречие, не обозначено никакого разногласия. И более того, в нем присутствует риторический вопрос, который недопустим в этом типе заданий. Подчеркнем: никаких риторических вопросов! Они свойственны какому угодно стилю, но только не нейтральному, которым должно быть написано ваше сочинение. О стиле мы поговорим в отдельном пункте.

4) Собственное мнение и аргументация. Второй пункт плана формулируется: “Express your personal opinion and give 2-3 reasons for your opinion”. Начните второй абзац сочинения с прямого выражения собственного мнения, например: I believe that you get more chances to succeed if you choose your professional path as early as possible. Здесь имеется очень важный момент, который стоит обговорить отдельно.

Что такое “мое мнение”? Это чисто техническое название вашего сочинения. Как уже было сказано, тема сочинения распадается на две позиции, и ваша задача – присоединиться к одной из них. Ваше так называемое “мнение” ограничено только этими двумя точками зрения. Возможно, на самом деле вы не можете поддержать ни одну из них, – это ваше право как человека. Но ваши реальные взгляды на проблему, насколько глубоки и серьезны они не были бы, никого на экзамене не интересуют. Просто разложите тему на две позиции и присоединитесь к одной из них.

Также при выражении мнения избегайте дословного повторения темы. Скажем, следующая формулировка мнения не пойдет: “I believe that an early choice of a career path is the key to success”. Вы просто дословно повторили тему. Строго говоря, вам никто не запрещает делать это, но не удивляйтесь тогда сниженным баллам за то, что ваши языковые способности не отличаются богатством и разнообразием.

Итак, позиция выбрана, далее следует ее аргументация. Обратите внимание, от вас требуется два-три аргумента, а это значит не один и не четыре. Пожалуй, выразим общее мнение экспертов, если скажем, что следует ограничиться двумя сильными, полноценно раскрытыми аргументами. Следите за тем, чтобы ваши аргументы действительно подтверждали выбранную позицию и не были общими, размытыми рассуждениями на поставленную тему. В нашем случае хорошая аргументация может выглядеть, например, так: “First of all, an early career decisions mean saved time, which can be spent on better education and practice. The more theoretical knowledge and practical skills you acquire the better you are at a chosen professional activity. Good professionals are always in great demand in every sphere and they are highly rated and well-paid. These people are successful because high professional rating and substantial earnings are an important part of success. Moreover, the younger you are the more energy and health you have. As a matter of fact, trying to be successful requires a lot of psychophysical efforts, so young people are more advantaged than older ones.”

5) Противоположное мнение. Третий пункт плана звучит: “Express an opposing opinion and give 1-2 reasons for this opposing opinion”. Снова обратите внимание на количество аргументов – один-два и не больше. Эксперты в общем рекомендуют ограничиться одним достойным аргументом. Вот каким он может быть: “But there are people who consider that there is no interdependence of an early choice of a career path and success. They say that success is achievable at any age, and it is strong will that is the key to it.”

6) Несогласие с противоположным мнением и контраргументация. В четвертом пункте плана говорится: “Explain why you do not agree with the opposing opinion”. Несогласие выразить легко, для этого достаточно сказать: Nevertheless I do not agree with the above mentioned position. А вот доказать свое несогласие бывает очень затруднительно. Вам надо доказать несостоятельность аргумента противоположной точки зрения. Еще раз: вам надо доказать не ложность самой противоположной позиции, а разбить ее аргумент. В нашем случае мы указали сильную волю как ключ к успеху, значит именно этот момент и будем опровергать: “Nowadays many older people, no matter how strong-willed they are, cannot even get a chance for a job because of their age. Almost every company expects their employees to be not older than a certain age. If you are over, you are not invited to the job interview, which means you fail even on the first step to success. Your strong will is of no help.”

7) Заключение. Пятый пункт задания предполагает следующее: “Make a conclusion restating your position”. То есть от вас требуется подвести общий итог сказанному, но при этом еще раз утвердив свою точку зрения. Если в заключении не будет просматриваться еще раз ваша позиция, то вы непременно потеряете в оценке. Переутверждение должно быть таким, чтобы не повторяло в точности формулировку своего мнения во втором абзаце (и вообще избегайте повторения формулировок где бы то ни было). Скажите, например: “In conclusion, I would like to emphasize that there are no shortcuts to success in life. It usually takes much time to make money, to achieve a high social status, etc. So, the earlier you take the first step on your career path, the more prospects of success you have”.

8) Стиль. Ваше рассуждение должно проходить в нейтральном стиле. Это значит, что не должны употребляться языковые средства, имеющие эмоционально-стилистическую окраску. К наиболее частым нарушением стиля можно отнести: а) уже упомянутый риторический вопрос, б) слитные формы слов (can’t, don’t, I’d like и т.п.), что характерно для разговорной речи, в) идиомы, т.е. фразеологизмы, так как они характерны для художественной или разговорной речи, например: Extreme sports are not my cup of tea (Экстремальные виды спорта – это не мой конек); That will be the icing on the cake (Это будет приятной изюминкой). г) метафоры, т.е. слова и фразы с переносным значением, например: in the eye of the law – в глазах закона и т.п. В общем и целом, употребляйте слова в их прямом значении, и если у вас появилось желание приукрасить какое-либо предложение, то лучше откажитесь от такого намерения, так как при этом увеличивается вероятность промахнуться мимо нейтрального стиля.

Итак, подводя итого сказанному, написание эссе является чрезвычайно сложным делом и, по задумке разработчиков экзамена, должно стать радикальным инструментом разделения максимально подготовленных, талантливых знатоков английского языка и середнячков. Поэтому если хотите попасть в первую категорию, то пишите ваше сочинение с учетом всех тех нюансов, которые мы представили.