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Установите соответствие между заголовками A-H и текстами 1-7. Один заголовок лишний.
B. Human intelligence test
C. Man against computer
D. Robotic industry
E. Intelligent machines in our life
F. Computer intelligence test
G. Computers change human brains
H. Electronic film stars
Artificial intelligence is the art of making machines that are able to ‘think’. We often don’t notice it, but artificial intelligence is all around us. It is present in computer games, in the cruise control in our cars and the servers that direct our e-mail. Some scientists believe that the most powerful computers could have the power of the human brain. Machines have always been excellent at tasks like calculation. But now they are better than humans in many spheres, from chess to mixing music.
The world’s most powerful computer is ASCI Purple, made by IBM in 2004. It can carry out 100 trillion operations per second and has the size of two basketball courts. A computer with double power is expected in the next two years. A spokesman for IBM said that ASCI Purple is near the power of the human brain. But some scientists believe our brains can carry out almost 10,000 trillion operations per second.
The possible dangers of intelligent machines became the stories of many science fiction films. In The Terminator (1984), a computer network uses nuclear weapons against the human race in order to rule the world. This network then makes intelligent robots called ‘Terminators’ which it programs to kill all the humans. In The Matrix (1999) and The Matrix Reloaded (2003), a machine dominates humanity, using people as batteries to power itself.
In 1997, then the world chess champion Garry Kasparov played against IBM’s Deep Blue supercomputer – and lost. After six games, the world-famous Kasparov lost 2.5 to 3.5 to the computer. In February 2003, Kasparov restored human reputation by finishing equal against the Israeli-built supercomputer Deep Junior. Kasparov ended ihe game with the score 2-2 against US company X3D Technologies’ supercomputer X3D Fritz in November 2003, proving that the human brain can keep up with the latest developments in computing (at least in chess).
There are a number of different methods which try to measure intelligence, the most famous of which is perhaps the IQ, or ‘Intelligence Quotient’ test. This test was first used in early 20th century Paris. The modern day IQ test measures a variety of different types of ability such as memory for words and figures: and others. Whether IQ tests actually test general intelligence is disputable. Some argue that they just show how good the individual is at IQ tests!
Analysis shows that human intelligence is changing. We are gaining abilities in some areas of intelligence, while losing them in others, such as memory. So this generation may not remember the great number of poems, their abilities are greater in other areas. It has been discovered that wide use of video games improves reaction time. But we could only dream of computing without calculators as fast as our grandparents did.
In 1950, mathematician Alan Turing invented a test to check machine intelligence. In the Turing Test two people (A and B) sit in a closed room, a third person (C), who asks questions, sits outside. Person A tries to answer the questions so that person С doesn’t guess who they are: men or women, while person В tries to help him (C) in their identification. Turing suggested a machine take the place of person A. If the machine fooled the human, it was likely to be intelligent.
1. – E
2. – A
3. – H
4. – C
5. – B
6. – G
7. – F