Тренировочное задание 52 на подбор заголовков к текстам.
1. Threatening rise
2. A bicycle-friendly city
3. Minimize your risk
4. Safe means of transport
5. Disadvantages of vehicle transportation
6. Better for people and nature
7. Dangers of traffic jams
8. The nature helps
A. There are now over a billion motor vehicles in the world – and the number is rising by more than 40 million each year. The average distance driven by car users is growing too – from 8 km a day per person in Western Europe in 2000 to 25 km a day in 2017. This dependence on motor vehicles has given rise to major problems, including environmental pollution, depletion of oil resources, traffic congestion and safety.
B. Plants help to improve a city’s air quality. They convert carbon dioxide into oxygen, filter the air and help to cool down cities. Parks, green belts and green roofs are very important for a city’s climate. In towns like Dresden, special walls planted with green plants have been set up in order to clean the air. One of these walls is supposed to filter as many particulates out of the air as 200 trees.
C. One solution that has been put forward is the long-term solution of designing cities and neighbourhoods so that car journeys are not nccessary – all essential services are located within walking distance or easily accessible by public transport. Not only would this save energy and cut emissions, it would also cnhance the quality of community life, putting the emphasis on people instead of cars.
D. While emissions from new cars are far less harmful than they used to be, city streets and motorways are becoming more crowded than ever, often with older trucks, buses and taxis, which emit cxccssivc levels of smoke and fumes. This concentration of vehicles makes air quality in urban areas unpleasant and sometimes dangerous to breathe. Even Moscow has joined the list of capitals afflicted by congestion and traffic fumes.
E. The study found that car transport is seven times as costly as rail travel and in terms of the social costs it causes other inconveniences such as congestion, accidents, pollution, loss of cropland and natural habitats, depletion of oil resources, and so on. Yet cars easily surpass trains or buses as a flexible and convenient mode of personal transport. It is unrealistic to expect people to give up private cars in favour of mass transit.
F. Amsterdam is famous for its bike culture. The city offers over 400 km (248 miles) of bike paths as well as many bike racks. In the inner city, over 60 per cent of trips are made by bicycles, and even the police patrols the city on bikes. There arc over 1.2 million bicyclcs in Amsterdam – more than the number of citizens. It is estimated that close to 80% of the citizens use bikes, covering a total distance of 1.5 million km every single day!
G. To reduce your exposure to smog and its potential health effects, you should avoid or reduce outdoor activities when smog levels are high, especially during the afternoon. Choose indoor activities instead. Avoid exercising near areas of heavy traffic, especially during rush hour; and if you have a heart or lung condition, talk to your health care professional about additional ways to protect your health when smog levels are high.
A – 1
B – 8
C – 6
D – 7
E – 5
F – 2
G – 3