Тренировочное задание 51 на подбор заголовков к текстам.
1. Possible locations
2. How to reduce bulling
3. Power imbalance
4. Victims of bulling
5. School shootings
6. Types of bulling
8. Negative impact on education
A. Those who are bullied may feel depressed, anxious, angry, have cxcessive stress, leamed helplessness, feel as though their life has fallen apart, have a significant drop in school performance, or may commit suicide (bullycide). Children who are physically smaller, more sensitive, unhappy, anxious, quiet, and withdrawn are more likely to be bullied. They are often described as passive. Possessing these qualities make these individuals vulnerable, as they are seen as being less likely to retaliate.
B. There have been a number of attacks at schools, involving the use of a firearm. Incidents that involve four or more deaths are categorized as mass shootings. According to studies, factors behind such attacks include lack of family supervision and mental illness. School bullying is associated with school shootings; the vast majority of students believe that shootings occur in direct retaliation to bullying. The motives include an attempt to solve a problem, suicide or depression, and seeking attention or recognition.
C. Thus, this conduct is often described as an intentional aggressive behavior that takes place via new technologies, during which groups or individuals hurt classmates who cannot easily defend themsclves. These events can occur via cellphones or Computers, by means of text messages, 1 e-mails, online social networks, chatrooms or blogs. Because bullies can pose as someone eise, it is the most anonymous form of bullying. This type of bulling can happen 24 hours a day and seven days a wcek.
D. Bullying may vary by context. Most bullying in clementary school happens in the playground. In middle school and high school, it occurs most in the hallways, which have little supervision. More than 47% of kids reported getting bullied in hallways and stairway. Bus stops and bus rides to and from school tend to be hostile environments as well; children tend to view the driver as someone with no disciplinary authority. However, bullying can happen in any place at any time.
E. Bullying may be classified as verbal, physical, psychological, and cyber. Cyberbullying is becoming one of the most common nowadays. Direct bullying is a relatively open attack on a victim that is physical and/or verbal in nature. Indirect bullying is more subtle and harder to detect, but involves forms of aggression, including social isolation via exclusion, spreading rumors, making faces or obscene gestures behind someone’s back, and manipulating friendships or other relationships.
F. The educational effects on victims of school violence and bullying are significant. Violence and bullying may make children and adolescents afVaid to go to school and interfere with their ability to concentrate in dass. The consequences include missing classes, avoiding school activities, playing truant or dropping out of school altogether. Children and adolescents who are victims of violence may achieve lower grades and may be less likely to anticipate going on to higher education.
G. Measures that are effective include increasing empathy for victims; adopting a program that includes teachers, students, and parents; and having students lead anti-bullying efforts. Success is most associated with having some students simply take online classes to avoid bullies at school. It helps to improve school climate, reduce discipline issues, and support academic aphievement. Also children from a young age must leam proper internet behavior in order to prevent being bullied via the Internet.
A – 4
B – 5
C – 7
D – 1
E – 6
F – 8
G – 2