ЕГЭ – диалог (интервью) 27 с вопросами и выбором ответов

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1. What conclusion does the new medical study suggest?
1) People have become healthier.
2) People now live longer.
3) Men now live longer than women.

2. What is Richard Horton’s opinion of the recent medical statistics?
1) They are controversial.
2) They present really bad news.
3) They are positive in many ways.

3. According to the recent medical statistics, more people now die of
1) malaria.
2) poor diet.
3) ТВ.

4. Which of the following is NOT mentioned by Richard Horton as ‘a big disease which won’t go away’?
1) AIDS.
2) ТВ.
3) Measles.

5. According to Mike Cohen, heart diseases are now related to
1) one’s lifestyle.
2) infections.
3) low-fat diet.

6. What does Lora Johns say about non-communicable diseases?
1) They are mostly caused by smoking.
2) More people suffer from them than from infectious ones.
3) The most common among them is stroke.

7. What conclusion does Joshua Salomon make of the research?
1) Chronic illnesses are still a big problem.
2) Disability is a minor problem.
3) Reducing mortality is the main goal for medicine.

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Presenter: Welcome to our program where we speak about the burning issues of our modern world. Today we’re talking about medicine and longevity. Our expert today is Lora Johns, MD.
Lora Johns: Good afternoon.
Presenter: So, Lora, what are the latest trends in modern healthcare?
Lora Johns: A new study says people are living longer, but many are living longer in poor health. Researchers found that life expectancy has increased by about 5 years since 1990. On average, men worldwide can expect to live 67-and-a-half years. Women can expect to live to age 73.
Presenter: Have these results been published?
Lora Johns: Of course, this is a worldwide project. Almost 500 researchers in 50 countries took part in the study of global disease and disability. The findings appear in a series of articles in ‘The Lancet’, whose editor-in-chief is the famous Richard Horton. Actually, he sounds quite optimistic about the statistics. He says that all of us in the world of health tend to focus too much on diseases and other bad news. Actually, the Global Burden of Disease 2013 Study presents very good news, at least in broad terms.
Presenter: Really? Could you explain this more?
Lora Johns: For instance, the research found that far fewer people died of measles, tetanus, respiratory problems and diarrheal diseases in 2013 than in 1993. Deaths from infections, childbirth-related problems and malnutrition fell about 17% to 13.2 million.
Presenter: What are the main objectives of modern healthcare?
Lora Johns: Global efforts have focused on reducing HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. HIV/AIDS deaths have dropped since 2006, and ТВ deaths fell almost 20% since 1990. But each of these diseases still kills more than a million people every year. The number of malaria deaths increased by an estimated 20%, to almost 1.2 million in 2010. As Richard Horton puts it, those three big diseases are just not going away.
Presenter: What other comments have medical specialists made to the report?
Lora Johns: Well, we’d be wise to trust the expertise of Mike Cohen. He is the head of global health research at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He was not involved in the research, but he says it shows a change taking place worldwide. What he thinks is that with infectious diseases being better controlled and people living longer, and with their diets and lifestyles changing, the inevitable consequence in health is that we have to deal much more broadly with hypertension, heart disease, and diabetes.
Presenter: That sounds like sad news.
Lora Johns: I totally agree. The study also found that these kinds of non- communicable diseases caused more than half of the global burden of disease in 2013. The two biggest killers — heart disease and stroke — caused one-fourth of all deaths in 2013. That was up from one-fifth in 1993.
Presenter: I guess in many cases people can only blame themselves for their illnesses.
Lora Johns: True. There was a 48% increase in the number of deaths from lung cancer, commonly caused by smoking tobacco.
Presenter: The final question. What are the main causes of people’s disabilities today?
Lora Johns: The top causes of disability are physical conditions like arthritis and back problems, and mental and behavioral problems like depression, anxiety and substance abuse. Harvard University professor Joshua Salomon, a co-author of the disability research, thinks that in general we’ve been more successful at reducing mortality and less successful at actually addressing chronic disability.
Presenter: Thank you, Lora.

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