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Firstly it is decline in the Death Rate: At the root of overpopulation is the difference between the overall birth rate and death rate in populations. If the number of children born each year equals the number of adults that die, then the population will stabilize. Talking about overpopulation shows that while there are many factors that can increase the death rate for short periods of time, the ones that increase the birth rate do so over a long period of time. The discovery of agriculture by our ancestors was one factor that provided them with the ability to sustain their nutrition without hunting. This created the first imbalance between the two rates.
Following this came the industrial revolution and better Medical Facilities. Technological advancement was perhaps the biggest reason why the balance has been permanently disturbed. Science was able to produce better means of producing food, which allowed families to feed more mouths. Medical science made many discoveries thanks to which they were able to defeat a whole range of diseases. Illnesses that had claimed thousands of lives till now were cured because of the invention of vaccines. Combining the increase in food supply with fewer means of mortality tipped the balance and became the starting point of overpopulation.
However, when talking about overpopulation we should understand that there is a psychological component as well. For thousands of years, a very small part of the population had enough money to live in comfort. The rest faced poverty and would give birth to large families to make up for the high infant mortality rate. Families that have been through poverty, natural disasters or are simply in need of more hands to work are a major factor for overpopulation. As compared to earlier times, most of these extra children survive and consume resources that are not sufficient in nature.
With latest technological advancement and more discoveries in medical science particularly in Fertility Treatment, it has become possible for couples who are unable to conceive to undergo fertility treatment methods and have their own babies. Today there are effective medicines which can increases the chance of conception and lead to rise in birth rate. Moreover, due to modern techniques pregnancies today are far safer.
Another cause of overpopulation is immigration. Many people prefer to move to developed countries like US, UK, Canada and Australia where best facilities are available in terms of medical, education, security and employment. The end result is that those people settle over there and those places become overcrowded. Difference between the number of people who are leaving the country and the number of people who enter narrows down which leads to more demand for food, clothes, energy and homes. This gives rise to shortage of resources. Though the overall population remains the same, it just affects the density of population making that place simply overcrowded.
That last thing that effects overpopulation is lack of Family Planning. Most developing nations have large number of people who are illiterate, live below the poverty line and have little or no knowledge about family planning. Getting their children married at an early age increase the chances of producing more kids. Those people are unable to understand the harmful effects of overpopulation and lack of quality education prompts them to avoid family planning measures.
ВОПРОС 1: What created the first imbalance between the overall birth rate and death rate populations?
1) The discovery of medicals.
2) Talking about overpopulation.
3) Talking about ecological problems.
4) The discovery of agriculture by our ancestors.
ВОПРОС 2: What did medical science do?
1) Produced better means of producing food.
2) Combined the increase in food supply with fewer means of mortality.
3) Made many discoveries which were able to defeat a whole range of diseases.
4) Increased the industrial revolution.
ВОПРОС 3: To what did it lead when families in poverty gave birth to large families?
1) It led to psychological component.
2) They made up high infant mortality rate.
3) It led to the need of more hands to work.
4) It led to consumption of resources.
ВОПРОС 4: What are two things to which effective medicines can lead to?
1) Increase the chance of conception and rise in birth rate.
2) Increase the chance of growing healthy food and rise in birth rate.
3) Increase the death rate and the birth rate.
4) Increase the number of medicines provided to the people and the number of pharmacies.
ВОПРОС 5: What does changing the place of living affect?
1) It affects the density of population.
2) It makes the place simply overcrowded.
3) It leads to more demand for food, clothes, energy and homes.
4) It gives rise to shortage of resources.
ВОПРОС 6: What are the problems that most developing nations have?
1) Getting their children married at an early age.
2) Being unable to understand the harmful effects of overpopulation.
3) Being illiterate, living below the poverty line, having no knowledge about family planning.
4) Lack of quality education prompts.
ВОПРОС 7: What causes mentioned in the article lead to overpopulation?
1) Death rate, fertility treatment, overpopulation, lack of family planning.
2) Death rate, medical facilities, fertility treatment, overpopulation, lack of family planning.
3) Death rate, medical facilities, fertility treatment, overpopulation.
4) Death rate, medical facilities, overpopulation, lack of family planning.
ВОПРОС 1: – 4
ВОПРОС 2: – 3
ВОПРОС 3: – 2
ВОПРОС 4: – 1
ВОПРОС 5: – 1
ВОПРОС 6: – 3
ВОПРОС 7: – 2