Лексико-грамматическая трансформация (преобразование слов)

На данной странице содержатся задания на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию. В каждом задании дан текст с рядом слов в начальной форме. Необходимо преобразовать (трансформировать) данные слова таким образом, чтобы они лексически и грамматически соответствовали содержанию теста. Данный вид заданий используется в ЕГЭ по английскому языку.

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Задание 1 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

Henry’s best friend

Henry’s best friend Stan had moved to another town during the previous school year. Henry missed his friend, but he ( HAVE ) a birthday party soon and he hoped that Stan would be able to make it.

The party was set for the following weekend. Henry ( SEND ) Stan an email several days earlier, but he wasn’t sure if Stan’s computer was up and running yet, and Stan wasn’t always the best at returning emails.

Nonetheless, Henry had a good feeling about seeing his friend. After the party had been going for about an hour, Henry saw Stan walk through the door. ‘I knew you ( COME )!’ Henry said, and gave his friend a hug.

Henry’s best friend

Henry’s best friend Stan had moved to another town during the previous school year. Henry missed his friend, but he WAS HAVING a birthday party soon and he hoped that Stan would be able to make it.

The party was set for the following weekend. Henry HAD SENT Stan an email several days earlier, but he wasn’t sure if Stan’s computer was up and running yet, and Stan wasn’t always the best at returning emails.

Nonetheless, Henry had a good feeling about seeing his friend. After the party had been going for about an hour, Henry saw Stan walk through the door. ‘I knew you WOULD COME!’ Henry said, and gave his friend a hug.

Задание 2 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

Wind farms

It seems that wind energy has found a friend in the UK. A new study shows that wind farms are the ( POPULAR ) type of renewable energy source among the British.

Two thousand people were asked about their preferences for energy sources. Nearly 50% of them said they would welcome wind farms even if they ( CONSTRUCT ) within seven kilometres of their home.

Coal-powered energy is less favourable to people, as only 20% of citizens prefer to have this type of power source in ( THEY ) neighbourhood.

Despite the preference for wind farms, the UK government isn’t keen on ( ALLOW ) farms to be built inland. The aim is to build offshore wind farms and to use land for other purposes.

Wind farms

It seems that wind energy has found a friend in the UK. A new study shows that wind farms are the MOST POPULAR type of renewable energy source among the British.

Two thousand people were asked about their preferences for energy sources. Nearly 50% of them said they would welcome wind farms even if they WERE CONSTRUCTED within seven kilometres of their home.

Coal-powered energy is less favourable to people, as only 20% of citizens prefer to have this type of power source in THEIR neighbourhood.

Despite the preference for wind farms, the UK government isn’t keen on ALLOWING farms to be built inland. The aim is to build offshore wind farms and to use land for other purposes.

Задание 3 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

Konstantin Tsiolkovsky

Konstantin Tsiolkovsky was a Russian scientist. He worked during the late 19th and early 20th century on the ( DEVELOP ) of theories in rocket science and space flight, and is considered one of the pioneers of astronautics.

His work with rockets can be easily seen today. The jet engines that steer rockets in space were developed by Tsiolkovsky, and the airlocks that allow astronauts to enter and exit space were his ( INVENT ) as well.

Tsiolkovsky often had trouble getting funding for his projects. He was quite ( PROGRESS ) for his time, and the Russian science programmes didn’t always believe in his work.

In 1903 he published an article which proved that rockets could fly into space. Although it is now a basic ( SCIENCE ) principle, no one in his field appreciated the article when it was written.

Many of Tsiolkovsky’s ideas went on to be used in rocket science and space travel. Like most scientists, though, some of his ideas were considered ( PRACTICAL ) and were ignored as a result.

One such idea stated that humans would ( EVENTUAL ) move to other parts of our galaxy to live. Science is still a long way off that, but the idea is still alive.

Konstantin Tsiolkovsky

Konstantin Tsiolkovsky was a Russian scientist. He worked during the late 19th and early 20th century on the DEVELOPMENT of theories in rocket science and space flight, and is considered one of the pioneers of astronautics.

His work with rockets can be easily seen today. The jet engines that steer rockets in space were developed by Tsiolkovsky, and the airlocks that allow astronauts to enter and exit space were his INVENTION as well.

Tsiolkovsky often had trouble getting funding for his projects. He was quite PROGRESSIVE for his time, and the Russian science programmes didn’t always believe in his work.

In 1903 he published an article which proved that rockets could fly into space. Although it is now a basic SCIENTIFIC principle, no one in his field appreciated the article when it was written.

Many of Tsiolkovsky’s ideas went on to be used in rocket science and space travel. Like most scientists, though, some of his ideas were considered IMPRACTICAL and were ignored as a result.

One such idea stated that humans would EVENTUALLY move to other parts of our galaxy to live. Science is still a long way off that, but the idea is still alive.

Задание 4 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

Sepak takraw

Have you heard of sepak takraw? It’s a sport in Southeast Asia which ( PLAY ) like volleyball, except players use their feet to kick the ball and not their hands.

The sport has been around since the 15th century, with records ( SHOW ) that it was played by one of the royal families of the Malay region at that time.

The word ‘sepak’ is Malay for ‘kick’ and ‘takraw’ is Thai for ‘woven ball’; thus, the name of the sport literally means ‘kick ball’. The combination of these words from different languages represents a symbol of solidarity between two of the ( POWERFUL ) countries in the region.

Sepak takraw

Have you heard of sepak takraw? It’s a sport in Southeast Asia which IS PLAYED like volleyball, except players use their feet to kick the ball and not their hands.

The sport has been around since the 15th century, with records SHOWING that it was played by one of the royal families of the Malay region at that time.

The word ‘sepak’ is Malay for ‘kick’ and ‘takraw’ is Thai for ‘woven ball’; thus, the name of the sport literally means ‘kick ball’. The combination of these words from different languages represents a symbol of solidarity between two of the MOST POWERFUL countries in the region.

Задание 5 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

A special occasion

Sarah and John worked for a transport service helping elderly people get round town. It was Friday and they ( DRIVE ) through heavy London traffic to get to Ms Harris’s house to take her to her doctor’s surgery.

When they arrived, they rang the bell and were greeted by Ms Harris. ‘Please, come inside. I’m not quite ready to leave, so have a seat and make ( YOU ) comfortable,’ she said.

They sat in her living room and waited, but after about fifteen minutes, they started to worry. ‘Maybe she ( FALL ) down and she can’t get up,’ said Sarah.

Just then, they heard Ms Harris coming down the stairs. She was wearing a black evening gown and a diamond tiara. Sarah and John were surprised and thought Ms Harris ( MAKE ) a mistake. When John asked where they were going, Ms Harris replied, ‘To Dr Amherst’s surgery. I’m his date for the awards ceremony honouring his work!’

A special occasion

Sarah and John worked for a transport service helping elderly people get round town. It was Friday and they WERE DRIVING through heavy London traffic to get to Ms Harris’s house to take her to her doctor’s surgery.

When they arrived, they rang the bell and were greeted by Ms Harris. ‘Please, come inside. I’m not quite ready to leave, so have a seat and make YOURSELVES comfortable,’ she said.

They sat in her living room and waited, but after about fifteen minutes, they started to worry. ‘Maybe she HAS FALLEN down and she can’t get up,’ said Sarah.

Just then, they heard Ms Harris coming down the stairs. She was wearing a black evening gown and a diamond tiara. Sarah and John were surprised and thought Ms Harris HAD MADE a mistake. When John asked where they were going, Ms Harris replied, ‘To Dr Amherst’s surgery. I’m his date for the awards ceremony honouring his work!’

Задание 6 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

British English

British English is a form of English used in many parts of the world. Generally, areas of the world that have been strongly influenced by the British, such as the Commonwealth Nations, or areas that are ( GEOGRAPHY ) closer to the UK than the United States, use and study this form of English.

Because of the UK’s influence on the world for hundreds of years, British English has become an ( NATIONAL ) language, along with American English.

Many phrasal verbs, idioms and other ( EXPRESS ) have slightly different wording in other forms of English. The phrasal verb ‘get on’ in British English, meaning have a good relationship, is ‘get along’ in American English, for example.

Differences between the forms have also resulted in many students writing ( SPELL ) words when they try to write in one form or the other.

British English is the official form of English used in the European Union, along with 24 other languages. This was made ( EFFECT ) in 1973, when the UK joined the European Community.

Culturally, British English is thought to be the most definitive form of the English language. The dozens of distinct accents in the UK add another level of ( RICH ) to the language.

British English

British English is a form of English used in many parts of the world. Generally, areas of the world that have been strongly influenced by the British, such as the Commonwealth Nations, or areas that are GEOGRAPHICALLY closer to the UK than the United States, use and study this form of English.

Because of the UK’s influence on the world for hundreds of years, British English has become an INTERNATIONAL language, along with American English.

Many phrasal verbs, idioms and other EXPRESSIONS have slightly different wording in other forms of English. The phrasal verb ‘get on’ in British English, meaning have a good relationship, is ‘get along’ in American English, for example.

Differences between the forms have also resulted in many students writing MISSPELT words when they try to write in one form or the other.

British English is the official form of English used in the European Union, along with 24 other languages. This was made EFFECTIVE in 1973, when the UK joined the European Community.

Culturally, British English is thought to be the most definitive form of the English language. The dozens of distinct accents in the UK add another level of RICHNESS to the language.

Задание 7 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

Michelle’s big night

Michelle was quite nervous about her performance in the school play. She thought she would feel ( GOOD ) , though, if her brother Frank came to see to the show.

She asked him, even begged him to be there, ( THINK ) he might just say yes but then not turn up. ‘I promise you, Michelle. I’ll be sitting in the front row from the beginning to the end of the play.’

On the night of the show, Michelle did wonderfully. As a show of support, her brother clapped the ( LOUD ) of everyone in the theatre.

Michelle’s big night

Michelle was quite nervous about her performance in the school play. She thought she would feel BETTER, though, if her brother Frank came to see to the show.

She asked him, even begged him to be there, THINKING he might just say yes but then not turn up. ‘I promise you, Michelle. I’ll be sitting in the front row from the beginning to the end of the play.’

On the night of the show, Michelle did wonderfully. As a show of support, her brother clapped the LOUDEST of everyone in the theatre.

Задание 8 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

Trans-Siberian Railway

Russia’s Trans-Siberian Railway is a source of great pride for the country. No railway in the world goes ( FAR ) than this one, stretching 9,289 kilometres to connect Moscow with the Russian Far East.

Construction on the line began in 1891 and ended in 1916, at which point Moscow and Vladivostok, a Russian city that lies on the Sea of Japan, ( JOIN ) by a single railway track.

Linking the two sides of the continent meant that development could accelerate in Siberia. Before the railway, rivers were the main form of transport, and in the winter, people rode horse-drawn carriages over ( THEY ) after they had frozen.

Nowadays, the Trans-Siberian Railway gives Russians and foreign travellers the chance to see an enormous part of the Russian countryside. More than that, however, agricultural goods and manufactured products ( TRANSPORT ) across the country on the railway.

Trans-Siberian Railway

Russia’s Trans-Siberian Railway is a source of great pride for the country. No railway in the world goes FARTHER (можно FURTHER) than this one, stretching 9,289 kilometres to connect Moscow with the Russian Far East.

Construction on the line began in 1891 and ended in 1916, at which point Moscow and Vladivostok, a Russian city that lies on the Sea of Japan, WERE JOINED by a single railway track.

Linking the two sides of the continent meant that development could accelerate in Siberia. Before the railway, rivers were the main form of transport, and in the winter, people rode horse-drawn carriages over THEM after they had frozen.

Nowadays, the Trans-Siberian Railway gives Russians and foreign travellers the chance to see an enormous part of the Russian countryside. More than that, however, agricultural goods and manufactured products ARE TRANSPORTED across the country on the railway.

Задание 9 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

Getting back to nature

City life has caused people to lose touch with nature. This is ( SPECIAL ) true for children who grow up in cities and never have much of a chance to experience nature aside from public parks.

It’s quite different from how many of their parents grew up, when 71% of children regularly played outside. Ask today’s children if they like climbing trees, and it’s ( PROBABLE ) that they will ever have tried it.

The resulting loss of our children’s ( RELATION ) with nature means they’re missing out on opportunities to make discoveries about plants and wildlife, and to build a love and respect for the natural world.

Instead, children spend a lot of their time watching television, playing video games or surfing the internet. School ( ADMINISTRATE ) are beginning to notice this problem and have begun to address it.

More and more schools are taking children to nature reserves on school trips in an effort to ( CLAIM ) this lost appreciation of nature.

The experience allows children to enjoy some time outside in a ( MEANING ) way. It helps relieve the pressure that they face from their studies while providing a learning experience as well.

Getting back to nature

City life has caused people to lose touch with nature. This is (E)SPECIALLY true for children who grow up in cities and never have much of a chance to experience nature aside from public parks.

It’s quite different from how many of their parents grew up, when 71% of children regularly played outside. Ask today’s children if they like climbing trees, and it’s IMPROBABLE that they will ever have tried it.

The resulting loss of our children’s RELATIONSHIP with nature means they’re missing out on opportunities to make discoveries about plants and wildlife, and to build a love and respect for the natural world.

Instead, children spend a lot of their time watching television, playing video games or surfing the internet. School ADMINISTRATORS are beginning to notice this problem and have begun to address it.

More and more schools are taking children to nature reserves on school trips in an effort to RECLAIM this lost appreciation of nature.

The experience allows children to enjoy some time outside in a MEANINGFUL way. It helps relieve the pressure that they face from their studies while providing a learning experience as well.

Задание 10 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

Gap year destination

Many young adults who turn 18 take a year off to travel the world. A gap year, as it’s known, can be the ( MEMORABLE ) time in a voung person’s life.

Where do most young adults spend this time? It seems that the top spot is usually Thailand, where students can stay cheaply, have a wide variety of activities to take part in and spend loads of time ( RELAX ) on the beach.

Because Thailand is so popular, it’s likely that young adults ( MEET ) other young adults while they’re there. It’s also an opportunity to experience another culture and learn a few words of a foreign language.

Gap year destination

Many young adults who turn 18 take a year off to travel the world. A gap year, as it’s known, can be the MOST MEMORABLE time in a voung person’s life.

Where do most young adults spend this time? It seems that the top spot is usually Thailand, where students can stay cheaply, have a wide variety of activities to take part in and spend loads of time RELAXING on the beach.

Because Thailand is so popular, it’s likely that young adults WILL MEET other young adults while they’re there. It’s also an opportunity to experience another culture and learn a few words of a foreign language.

Задание 11 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

Bad day

Eugene wasn’t having a good day. First, while he was pouring coffee into his mug at home in the morning, his hand slipped and he accidentally ( SPILL ) coffee all over the kitchen worktop.

He went to wipe up the spill with a sponge and knocked the mug onto the floor, where it broke into several pieces. Upset and ( FRUSTRATE ), he left home without having any coffee at all.

At work, he ran into a colleague, literally, and nearly knocked her over. ‘I’m so sorry, Michelle. Are you OK?’ he said quickly. She wasn’t amused and told him to watch where he ( GO ).

He ( CAN NOT ) wait for the dav to end, and iust as it did, he realised he had a report to finish. ‘What a terrible day. I should have stayed in bed this morning!’ he said, as he prepared to stay late at work.

Bad day

Eugene wasn’t having a good day. First, while he was pouring coffee into his mug at home in the morning, his hand slipped and he accidentally SPILT (можно SPILLED) coffee all over the kitchen worktop.

He went to wipe up the spill with a sponge and knocked the mug onto the floor, where it broke into several pieces. Upset and FRUSTRATED, he left home without having any coffee at all.

At work, he ran into a colleague, literally, and nearly knocked her over. ‘I’m so sorry, Michelle. Are you OK?’ he said quickly. She wasn’t amused and told him to watch where he WAS GOING.

He COULD NOT (можно COULDN’T) wait for the dav to end, and iust as it did, he realised he had a report to finish. ‘What a terrible day. I should have stayed in bed this morning!’ he said, as he prepared to stay late at work.

Задание 12 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

Weather in the UK

For a country so far north, the UK has mild weather in comparison to other countries that share similar latitudes. This is due to warm currents of water that are ( CONTINUAL ) pushed up from the central Atlantic Ocean and around the British Isles.

And, because it is located in a northern part of the globe and benefits from ( COAST ) breezes, it never really gets too hot, either. In fact, the warmest UK temperature on record is 38.5 degrees Celsius, recorded in Kent, England.

This makes for an interesting climate, as the UK is sandwiched between warm and cool air masses. As a result, the skies can be quite cloudy and there is often an ( ABSENT ) of direct sunlight
throughout the year.

Still, the milder weather, abundant rainfall, and fairly gentle landscape allow for a great deal of livestock farming and crop ( PRODUCE ).

While snow falls in Scotland and ( MOUNTAIN ) areas on around 40-50 days per year, the south west of England receives snow on only around 10 days annually.

And although it does get warm in the summer, a heatwave that lasts more than a few days is fairly ( LIKELY ).

Weather in the UK

For a country so far north, the UK has mild weather in comparison to other countries that share similar latitudes. This is due to warm currents of water that are CONTINUALLY pushed up from the central Atlantic Ocean and around the British Isles.

And, because it is located in a northern part of the globe and benefits from COASTAL breezes, it never really gets too hot, either. In fact, the warmest UK temperature on record is 38.5 degrees Celsius, recorded in Kent, England.

This makes for an interesting climate, as the UK is sandwiched between warm and cool air masses. As a result, the skies can be quite cloudy and there is often an ABSENCE of direct sunlight throughout the year.

Still, the milder weather, abundant rainfall, and fairly gentle landscape allow for a great deal of livestock farming and crop PRODUCTION.

While snow falls in Scotland and MOUNTAINOUS areas on around 40-50 days per year, the south west of England receives snow on only around 10 days annually.

And although it does get warm in the summer, a heatwave that lasts more than a few days is fairly UNLIKELY.

Задание 13 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

Paul and Sharon

Paul and his wife Sharon were out shopping at a local shopping centre. They ( PARK ) their car in the car park and were now returning to it with their shopping bags.

Paul put the car key into the door, but it wouldn’t turn. ‘What’s wrong with this key?’ he asked Sharon. ‘It ( NOT SEEM ) to be working.’

Confused, Sharon stepped back and took a good look at the car.
‘You know what, Paul? I don’t think this car is ( WE ). It just looks exactly like it. We’re trying to get into someone else’s car!’ They walked away and tried to remember where they’d parked their own car!

Paul and Sharon

Paul and his wife Sharon were out shopping at a local shopping centre. They HAD PARKED their car in the car park and were now returning to it with their shopping bags.

Paul put the car key into the door, but it wouldn’t turn. ‘What’s wrong with this key?’ he asked Sharon. ‘It DOES NOT SEEM (можно DOESN’T SEEM) to be working.’

Confused, Sharon stepped back and took a good look at the car.
‘You know what, Paul? I don’t think this car is OURS. It just looks exactly like it. We’re trying to get into someone else’s car!’ They walked away and tried to remember where they’d parked their own car!

Задание 14 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

City of Westminster

The City of Westminster is the borough of London that contains Buckingham Palace, the Houses of Parliament and the Prime Minister’s residence. It is located on the northern banks of the River Thames in the centre of London, and it’s one of the ( EXPENSIVE ) places to live in the UK.

The borough is of great historical interest, and almost four fifths of ( IT ) buildings are part of a designated conservation area.

Of all the tourists that visit London, approximately 95% of them tour the City of Westminster, which ( ACCOUNT ) for about 28 million visitors each year.

Other sites within the borough are Piccadilly Circus, Kensington Gardens, the headquarters of many global corporations and several renowned learning institutes. The borough has 27 tube stations and ( CONNECT ) to south London by seven bridges.

City of Westminster

The City of Westminster is the borough of London that contains Buckingham Palace, the Houses of Parliament and the Prime Minister’s residence. It is located on the northern banks of the River Thames in the centre of London, and it’s one of the MOST EXPENSIVE places to live in the UK.

The borough is of great historical interest, and almost four fifths of ITS buildings are part of a designated conservation area.

Of all the tourists that visit London, approximately 95% of them tour the City of Westminster, which ACCOUNTS for about 28 million visitors each year.

Other sites within the borough are Piccadilly Circus, Kensington Gardens, the headquarters of many global corporations and several renowned learning institutes. The borough has 27 tube stations and IS CONNECTED to south London by seven bridges.

Задание 15 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

Multimedia Art Museum

The Multimedia Art Museum is Moscow’s museum for the photographic arts and art technology. It is a ( RELATIVE ) new museum to the city, opening its doors in 2010.

The museum operates alongside the Moscow Elouse of Photography, which showcases the work of Russian photographers and other ( ART ) from past and contemporary eras.

Both museums support modern photographers and the ( ADVANCE ) of the field by collaborating with leading European art institutions.

The Multimedia Art Museum provides ( EDUCATE ) programmes for artists and for the general public, in an effort to encourage audiences to interact with the exhibits.

The museum also has special programmes aimed at helping ( ABLE ) children take part in photography. The creators of these programmes believe that despite their handicaps, these children have a unique perspective on life that adds a special creativity to their work.

( COMPETE ) are held in which photographers can submit collections of photos and receive monetary awards and a spot in the museums permanent collection. The theme is life in the Russian capital and collections can focus on people, architecture or everyday events.

Multimedia Art Museum

The Multimedia Art Museum is Moscow’s museum for the photographic arts and art technology. It is a RELATIVELY new museum to the city, opening its doors in 2010.

The museum operates alongside the Moscow Elouse of Photography, which showcases the work of Russian photographers and other ARTISTS from past and contemporary eras.

Both museums support modern photographers and the ADVANCEMENT of the field by collaborating with leading European art institutions.

The Multimedia Art Museum provides EDUCATIONAL programmes for artists and for the general public, in an effort to encourage audiences to interact with the exhibits.

The museum also has special programmes aimed at helping DISABLED children take part in photography. The creators of these programmes believe that despite their handicaps, these children have a unique perspective on life that adds a special creativity to their work.

COMPETITIONS are held in which photographers can submit collections of photos and receive monetary awards and a spot in the museums permanent collection. The theme is life in the Russian capital and collections can focus on people, architecture or everyday events.

Задание 16 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

Gorodki

Gorodki is a Russian sport played with a bat and wooden pegs. Most people probably ( NOT HEAR ) of gorodki, but they know of similar games such as horseshoes or croquet, in which the goal is to throw and knock objects round a field.

This particular games objective is to knock the pegs outside a designated area using the bat, which ( THROW ) at them. Players arrange the pegs into various formations, which have names such as cannon, ‘star’, aeroplane or ‘letter’.

The game dates back to ancient times, when it was traditionally played by Russian peasants who made up their own rules. The Russian nobility were playing it in the 17th century, along with various cultural figures in the 18th and 19th centuries, and ( FOLLOW ) that, it became a legitimate sport in 1923, complete with a set of official rules.

Gorodki

Gorodki is a Russian sport played with a bat and wooden pegs. Most people probably HAVE NOT HEARD (можно HAVEN’T HEARD) of gorodki, but they know of similar games such as horseshoes or croquet, in which the goal is to throw and knock objects round a field.

This particular games objective is to knock the pegs outside a designated area using the bat, which IS THROWN at them. Players arrange the pegs into various formations, which have names such as cannon, ‘star’, aeroplane or ‘letter’.

The game dates back to ancient times, when it was traditionally played by Russian peasants who made up their own rules. The Russian nobility were playing it in the 17th century, along with various cultural figures in the 18th and 19th centuries, and FOLLOWING that, it became a legitimate sport in 1923, complete with a set of official rules.

Задание 17 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

Wedding anniversary

Kellys grandparents had a very special day approaching. It was going to be their ( FIFTY ) wedding anniversary that Saturday, and her parents were planning a huge event.

For the occasion, they ( BOOK ) a dance hall several months earlier, so over 300 people could celebrate the golden couple’s milestone.

Kelly’s job was to create a seating arrangement, but people kept calling to say they wanted to come, too, which meant Kelly had to plan ( CAREFULLY ) than when she’d started.

Kellys parents also had a very special gift for her grandparents – a trip to India, a place her grandmother had always said she ( VISIT ) if she had the chance.

Wedding anniversary

Kellys grandparents had a very special day approaching. It was going to be their FIFTIETH wedding anniversary that Saturday, and her parents were planning a huge event.

For the occasion, they HAD BOOKED a dance hall several months earlier, so over 300 people could celebrate the golden couple’s milestone.

Kelly’s job was to create a seating arrangement, but people kept calling to say they wanted to come, too, which meant Kelly had to plan MORE CAREFULLY than when she’d started.

Kellys parents also had a very special gift for her grandparents – a trip to India, a place her grandmother had always said she WOULD VISIT if she had the chance.

Задание 18 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

World population

Is our planets population growth ever going to slow down? It’s ( TERRIFY ) to think about, but, by 2083, the number of people on the planet is expected to reach 10 billion.

There are people who keep track of these sorts of things. A ( DIVIDE ) of the United Nations is dedicated to tracking global population growth and making estimates of likely future totals.

The human population first hit 1 billion in 1800. This means that in mankind’s thousands of years of ( EXIST ) on the planet, our population only reached that figure just over 200 years ago.

In 1927, our population reached 2 billion, and it had become 3 billion by 1960, demonstrating that our numbers are in fact ( RAPID ) increasing, a cause for great concern.

We’ve been able to survive so far due to ( TECHNOLOGY ) advances made in agriculture, which have increased our food supply.

However, unless we improve upon existing techniques, farmers, and the planet itself, will be ( CAPABLE ) of supplying enough food for a 10-billion-strong global population. And that is only one of many problems that an ever-increasing human population creates.

World population

Is our planets population growth ever going to slow down? It’s TERRIFYING to think about, but, by 2083, the number of people on the planet is expected to reach 10 billion.

There are people who keep track of these sorts of things. A DIVISION of the United Nations is dedicated to tracking global population growth and making estimates of likely future totals.

The human population first hit 1 billion in 1800. This means that in mankind’s thousands of years of EXISTENCE on the planet, our population only reached that figure just over 200 years ago.

In 1927, our population reached 2 billion, and it had become 3 billion by 1960, demonstrating that our numbers are in fact RAPIDLY increasing, a cause for great concern.

We’ve been able to survive so far due to TECHNOLOGICAL advances made in agriculture, which have increased our food supply.

However, unless we improve upon existing techniques, farmers, and the planet itself, will be INCAPABLE of supplying enough food for a 10-billion-strong global population. And that is only one of many problems that an ever-increasing human population creates.

Задание 19 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

The letter

Michelle was looking for her sister, Lynn, because the day’s post had arrived and one of the letters was for her. She found her in the living room, ( LISTEN ) to music with her headphones on.

Michelle pulled Lynn’s headphones off and told her she had received a letter. ‘Oh, from ( WHO ) ?’ Lynn said aloud, even though she could have just looked at it.

The envelope said ‘Teen Ink’ and Lynn got very excited. She ripped open the envelope and read the letter as fast as she could without missing a word. Her article ( WIN ) first prize in a competition, and she was going to be a published author!

The letter

Michelle was looking for her sister, Lynn, because the day’s post had arrived and one of the letters was for her. She found her in the living room, LISTENING to music with her headphones on.

Michelle pulled Lynn’s headphones off and told her she had received a letter. ‘Oh, from WHOM?’ Lynn said aloud, even though she could have just looked at it.

The envelope said ‘Teen Ink’ and Lynn got very excited. She ripped open the envelope and read the letter as fast as she could without missing a word. Her article HAD WON (можно WON) first prize in a competition, and she was going to be a published author!

Задание 20 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

Teacher’s pet

It seems that it would be a good idea for any student to want to be teacher’s ‘pet’, or favourite. After all, if a teacher likes you the most, that teacher ( REWARD ) you with the most privileges in class, won’t they?

Strangely, though, almost no student wants this role! If they were given the choice, they ( PREFER ) to have a good relationship, but not too favourable.

Unfortunately, kids who are labelled teacher’s pet ( MAKE ) fun of by their classmates. The other students become jealous, so they try to level things out by giving the favoured student a hard time.

If anyone ever calls you a teacher’s pet, don’t let it get to you. It’s nothing but positive to have a good relationship with teachers, so just be ( YOU ) and ignore the others.

Teacher’s pet

It seems that it would be a good idea for any student to want to be teacher’s ‘pet’, or favourite. After all, if a teacher likes you the most, that teacher WILL REWARD you with the most privileges in class, won’t they?

Strangely, though, almost no student wants this role! If they were given the choice, they WOULD PREFER to have a good relationship, but not too favourable.

Unfortunately, kids who are labelled teacher’s pet ARE MADE fun of by their classmates. The other students become jealous, so they try to level things out by giving the favoured student a hard time.

If anyone ever calls you a teacher’s pet, don’t let it get to you. It’s nothing but positive to have a good relationship with teachers, so just be YOURSELF and ignore the others.

Задание 21 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

St Ives

When the British travel in their own country for a holiday, what’s their favourite destination? This topic could lead to a ( LENGTH ) discussion, but one place that often wins awards is St Ives.

St Ives is a town in Cornwall, the most south-westerly county in England. It lies on the Celtic Sea at the tip of the Cornish peninsula, and its white-sand beaches and year-round pleasant weather make it seem ( TROPICS ) in comparison to the rest of Britain.

The town has a rich past, and some notable buildings date back centuries. A fishermans tavern known as the Sloop Inn is believed to have been built in 1312 and has displayed the ( PAINT ) artists for many years.

Although mostly regarded as a resort town now, St Ives was ( HISTORY ) a fishing port, one of the largest in the area Billions of fish have been exported from the town over the years.

Dozens of artists make St Ives their home. They gain much ( INSPIRE ) from looking out to the open seas or at the lovely landscaped hills on the inland side.

The work that the artists of St Ives do is so ( IMPRESS ) that a Tate gallery has been founded in the town and documentaries have been made to showcase the artists’s live.

St Ives

When the British travel in their own country for a holiday, what’s their favourite destination? This topic could lead to a LENGTHY discussion, but one place that often wins awards is St Ives.

St Ives is a town in Cornwall, the most south-westerly county in England. It lies on the Celtic Sea at the tip of the Cornish peninsula, and its white-sand beaches and year-round pleasant weather make it seem TROPICAL in comparison to the rest of Britain.

The town has a rich past, and some notable buildings date back centuries. A fishermans tavern known as the Sloop Inn is believed to have been built in 1312 and has displayed the PAINTINGS artists for many years.

Although mostly regarded as a resort town now, St Ives was HISTORICALLY a fishing port, one of the largest in the area Billions of fish have been exported from the town over the years.

Dozens of artists make St Ives their home. They gain much INSPIRATION from looking out to the open seas or at the lovely landscaped hills on the inland side.

The work that the artists of St Ives do is so IMPRESSIVE that a Tate gallery has been founded in the town and documentaries have been made to showcase the artists’s live.

Задание 22 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

Imperial Porcelain Factory

The Imperial Porcelain Factory has been making fine porcelain in Russia for centuries. The factory, founded in 1744, was Empress Elizabeth’s idea with the aim of ( CREATE ) ceramic art.

After Empress Elizabeth, consecutive monarchs kept the factory busy with orders and allowed it to produce the ( FINE ) quality porcelain and ceramic plates, vases, tea sets and the like.

In the 1940s, the factory began to produce its famous cobalt net pattern, which consisted of intersecting lines of deep blue forming a geometric pattern on a white background. The edges of the dishes ( HIGHLIGHT ) in exquisite 22-karat gold.

Imperial Porcelain Factory

The Imperial Porcelain Factory has been making fine porcelain in Russia for centuries. The factory, founded in 1744, was Empress Elizabeth’s idea with the aim of CREATING ceramic art.

After Empress Elizabeth, consecutive monarchs kept the factory busy with orders and allowed it to produce the FINEST quality porcelain and ceramic plates, vases, tea sets and the like.

In the 1940s, the factory began to produce its famous cobalt net pattern, which consisted of intersecting lines of deep blue forming a geometric pattern on a white background. The edges of the dishes WERE HIGHLIGHTED in exquisite 22-karat gold.

Задание 23 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

Burger Hut

Peter called into his favourite burger shop on his way home from college one day. He didn’t realise he was out of cash until after he ( ORDER ) his meal.

The bill came to £4.99, and luckily, the burger shop accepted bank cards, so he paid with his card and went home. He ( EAT ) his burger while he was watching TV, and then he went about the rest of his day.

A couple of weeks later, Peter noticed a £499 charge on his bank statement. ‘This charge can’t be ( I ). I haven’t used my card for anything that expensive,’ Peter said aloud.

He saw the words ‘Burger Hut’ alongside the amount, so he called his bank and explained the situation. ‘It does seem strange that someone ( SPEND ) that much money in a burger’s shop,’ the bank employee said, and he agreed to correct the charge.

Burger Hut

Peter called into his favourite burger shop on his way home from college one day. He didn’t realise he was out of cash until after he HAD ORDERED (можно ORDERED) his meal.

The bill came to £4.99, and luckily, the burger shop accepted bank cards, so he paid with his card and went home. He ATE his burger while he was watching TV, and then he went about the rest of his day.

A couple of weeks later, Peter noticed a £499 charge on his bank statement. ‘This charge can’t be MINE. I haven’t used my card for anything that expensive,’ Peter said aloud.

He saw the words ‘Burger Hut’ alongside the amount, so he called his bank and explained the situation. ‘It does seem strange that someone WOULD SPEND that much money in a burger’s shop,’ the bank employee said, and he agreed to correct the charge.

Задание 24 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

Apps

Apps are those little computer programs we use on our mobile phones and other small devices. The word app’ is an abbreviation for software ( APPLY ).

Apps have been very popular since the rise of smartphones. There are apps for banking transactions, weather forecasts, video games, maps, calendars and other forms of data ( MANAGE ).

Many apps are available free of charge, or are at least ( EXPENSIVE ). Some apps with more sophisticated features can cost quite a bit of money, however.

An estimated 102 billion apps were downloaded in 2013, proving that the general public’s ( REACT ) to apps has been positive.

Some apps are quite amazing, such as one that can tell you what song is playing in a restaurant or cafe. Others are ( POSITIVE ) strange – there’s an app that makes a whistling sound that only a dog can hear!

When a software company releases a new app, it’s often a ( MASS ) event. Celebrities make appearances and loads of fans queue up to get a glimpse of them, and perhaps check out the app,
too.

Apps

Apps are those little computer programs we use on our mobile phones and other small devices. The word app’ is an abbreviation for software APPLICATION.

Apps have been very popular since the rise of smartphones. There are apps for banking transactions, weather forecasts, video games, maps, calendars and other forms of data MANAGEMENT.

Many apps are available free of charge, or are at least INEXPENSIVE. Some apps with more sophisticated features can cost quite a bit of money, however.

An estimated 102 billion apps were downloaded in 2013, proving that the general public’s REACTION to apps has been positive.

Some apps are quite amazing, such as one that can tell you what song is playing in a restaurant or cafe. Others are POSITIVELY strange – there’s an app that makes a whistling sound that only a dog can hear!

When a software company releases a new app, it’s often a MASSIVE event. Celebrities make appearances and loads of fans queue up to get a glimpse of them, and perhaps check out the app, too.

Задание 25 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

Lift note

Melanie was paying a visit to her friend Henry to see his new flat. After ( ARRIVE ) at his building, she called the lift down from its previous destination, Floor 1, and stepped inside.

She noticed a sign by the panel of buttons. She ignored it for a moment and simply pressed the button for the ( FIVE ) floor, the floor that Henry lived on.

She read the note as the lift ascended. Apparently, some people in the building thought some of the other residents were a bit lazy, because the note said, ‘Dear Floor 1, are the stairs broken? Love, Floors 2-7! Melanie laughed and wondered who ( WRITE ) the note!

Lift note

Melanie was paying a visit to her friend Henry to see his new flat. After ARRIVING at his building, she called the lift down from its previous destination, Floor 1, and stepped inside.

She noticed a sign by the panel of buttons. She ignored it for a moment and simply pressed the button for the FIFTH floor, the floor that Henry lived on.

She read the note as the lift ascended. Apparently, some people in the building thought some of the other residents were a bit lazy, because the note said, ‘Dear Floor 1, are the stairs broken? Love, Floors 2-7! Melanie laughed and wondered who HAD WRITTEN the note!

Задание 26 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

Pigeon fanciers

A popular pastime in Scotland is ‘pigeon fancying’, or keeping pigeons for racing or as pets. Fanciers often keep several birds at once in a special hut that they ( BUILD ) for them.

The Scottish word for a male pigeon is a ‘doo’ and one type of pigeon fancier in Scotland is called a ‘dooman’. Doomen specialise in using their doos to attract other peoples pigeons, which they then capture and claim for ( THEY ).

The fascination that doomen and other pigeon fanciers have with the birds is that a pigeon will form a bond with its owner. In other words, if you released one of them into the sky, it ( RETURN ) to you later on.

Pigeons and their owners form bonds through language. In fact, if a pigeon owner can’t use bird sounds properly, the pigeon ( FLY ) away and find a new owner.

Pigeon fanciers

A popular pastime in Scotland is ‘pigeon fancying’, or keeping pigeons for racing or as pets. Fanciers often keep several birds at once in a special hut that they HAVE BUILD for them.

The Scottish word for a male pigeon is a ‘doo’ and one type of pigeon fancier in Scotland is called a ‘dooman’. Doomen specialise in using their doos to attract other peoples pigeons, which they then capture and claim for THEMSELVES.

The fascination that doomen and other pigeon fanciers have with the birds is that a pigeon will form a bond with its owner. In other words, if you released one of them into the sky, it WOULD RETURN to you later on.

Pigeons and their owners form bonds through language. In fact, if a pigeon owner can’t use bird sounds properly, the pigeon WILL FLY away and find a new owner.

Задание 27 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

Buranovskiye Babushki

If you’ve been watching the Eurovision Song Contest in the last few years, you might remember this singing group. They stood out from the rest because they were not the ( TYPE ) entrant in the contest.

Most entrants are usually quite young and very trendy. They’re dressed in ( FASHION ) clothing – or at least they try to be, and they perform wild dance routines on occasion.

Buranovskiye Babushki breaks from that mould. They’re a group of eight elderly Russian women, or ‘grannies’, which is ‘babushki’ in Russian. Most of them are in their sixties and seventies, and their ( PERFORM ) at the 2012 Eurovision Song Contest got the second highest number of votes.

Their music is sung in the Udmurt language, an official language in the region of Udmurtia, where the grannies are from. The Udmurt alphabet is ( LARGE ) the same as the Russian alphabet.

Buranovskiye Babushki’s song entry was called ‘Party for Everybody’ and most of the song was in Udmurt, with a few English lyrics. The group wrote the Udmurtian lyrics themselves, and the English parts were written by an ( AMERICA ) songwriter.

The grannies have hopes of rebuilding a church in their native Udmurtia. They have pledged to put all of their ( EARN ) from their singing into a fund for the church.

Buranovskiye Babushki

If you’ve been watching the Eurovision Song Contest in the last few years, you might remember this singing group. They stood out from the rest because they were not the TYPICAL entrant in the contest.

Most entrants are usually quite young and very trendy. They’re dressed in FASHIONABLE clothing – or at least they try to be, and they perform wild dance routines on occasion.

Buranovskiye Babushki breaks from that mould. They’re a group of eight elderly Russian women, or ‘grannies’, which is ‘babushki’ in Russian. Most of them are in their sixties and seventies, and their PERFORMANCE at the 2012 Eurovision Song Contest got the second highest number of votes.

Their music is sung in the Udmurt language, an official language in the region of Udmurtia, where the grannies are from. The Udmurt alphabet is LARGELY the same as the Russian alphabet.

Buranovskiye Babushki’s song entry was called ‘Party for Everybody’ and most of the song was in Udmurt, with a few English lyrics. The group wrote the Udmurtian lyrics themselves, and the English parts were written by an AMERICAN songwriter.

The grannies have hopes of rebuilding a church in their native Udmurtia. They have pledged to put all of their EARNINGS from their singing into a fund for the church.

Задание 28 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

Listening to the radio

Many of us get our news and entertainment from television and the Internet. You might be surprised to learn, then, that people who listen to the radio are much happier than ( THAT ) people who use the other media outlets.

It makes perfect sense when you think about it. Television and the Internet offer entertainment, but negative activity ( INCLUDE ) in the mix as well. We sometimes see saddening news reports, and we do tedious things online, such as check account balances.

With radio, people listen to it because they want to feel good. It seems that in recent years we ( FORGET ) about the joy radio gives us because we focus on television and the Internet so much.

Listening to the radio

Many of us get our news and entertainment from television and the Internet. You might be surprised to learn, then, that people who listen to the radio are much happier than THOSE people who use the other media outlets.

It makes perfect sense when you think about it. Television and the Internet offer entertainment, but negative activity IS INCLUDED in the mix as well. We sometimes see saddening news reports, and we do tedious things online, such as check account balances.

With radio, people listen to it because they want to feel good. It seems that in recent years we HAVE FORGOTTEN about the joy radio gives us because we focus on television and the Internet so much.

Задание 29 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

Under pressure

Leslie was under a lot of pressure at work. Her boss wasn’t certain that she would get everything done, but she reassured him by saying, ‘I promise you, the project ( COMPLETE ) on Friday.’

The truth was it would take a miracle to finish the work by then. She thought about asking her boss for more time, but as she ( PROMISE ) it on Friday she felt it was too late to ask now.

On Thursday, when Leslie was stressed the most, she ( BREAK ) her ankle while she was climbing some stairs, and she had to go to hospital immediately.

She thought it might be the ‘break’ she needed. But while she was happy to get out of work, she ( NOT LOOK ) forward to wearing a cast on her leg for two months.

Under pressure

Leslie was under a lot of pressure at work. Her boss wasn’t certain that she would get everything done, but she reassured him by saying, ‘I promise you, the project WILL BE COMPLETED on Friday.’

The truth was it would take a miracle to finish the work by then. She thought about asking her boss for more time, but as she HAD PROMISED it on Friday she felt it was too late to ask now.

On Thursday, when Leslie was stressed the most, she BROKE her ankle while she was climbing some stairs, and she had to go to hospital immediately.

She thought it might be the ‘break’ she needed. But while she was happy to get out of work, she WAS NOT LOOKING (можно WASN’T LOOKING) forward to wearing a cast on her leg for two months.

Задание 30 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

A friendlier London

A group of people in London are trying to get their fellow citizens to open up and chat with one another more often. They’ve embarke on a campaign called ‘Talk to me London, because the city has been accused of being ( FRIEND ).

The idea is to change the perception of London. The founders of the ( MOVE ) believe talking is something we all love to do, but many people are afraid to talk to people they don’t know.

The group behind ‘Talk to me London is a collection of people from ( VARY ) backgrounds, such as business, design, media and other fields. Their work on the project is voluntary.

The project has attracted some attention in the press. Some people find it to be a pleasant idea, but others have dismissed the idea ( ENTIRE ). They say they moved to London so that they wouldn’t have to talk to people!

Of course, one of the benefits of living in a big city is that you can remain anonymous. However, by rarely talking to anyone, you risk suffering from ( LONELY ).

Perhaps some people will appreciate the campaign and give life to it. After all, it shouldn’t be such a challenging task to talk to ( STRANGE ).

A friendlier London

A group of people in London are trying to get their fellow citizens to open up and chat with one another more often. They’ve embarke on a campaign called ‘Talk to me London, because the city has been accused of being UNFRIENDLY.

The idea is to change the perception of London. The founders of the MOVEMENT believe talking is something we all love to do, but many people are afraid to talk to people they don’t know.

The group behind ‘Talk to me London is a collection of people from VARIOUS backgrounds, such as business, design, media and other fields. Their work on the project is voluntary.

The project has attracted some attention in the press. Some people find it to be a pleasant idea, but others have dismissed the idea ENTIRELY. They say they moved to London so that they wouldn’t have to talk to people!

Of course, one of the benefits of living in a big city is that you can remain anonymous. However, by rarely talking to anyone, you risk suffering from LONELINESS.

Perhaps some people will appreciate the campaign and give life to it. After all, it shouldn’t be such a challenging task to talk to STRANGERS.

Задание 31 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

The ripped note

Lauren pulled a ten-pound note from her pocket but as she did so it suddenly ripped down the middle. ‘Oh no, I don’t believe it, it’s ruined! And now I ( LOSE ) ten pounds!’ she said to her friend, Pete.

Why don’t you tape the two pieces back together? I’m sure it ( BE ) fine,’ Pete replied. Lauren had her doubts about this, but she decided to try it.

She got some tape from her desk and taped the note together as Pete had suggested. But an hour later, when she tried to buy a sandwich, the shop owner refused her note. When she asked why, the surly shop owner said, ‘Sorry, but sometimes two halves ( NOT MAKE ) a whole.’

The ripped note

Lauren pulled a ten-pound note from her pocket but as she did so it suddenly ripped down the middle. ‘Oh no, I don’t believe it, it’s ruined! And now I HAVE LOST ten pounds!’ she said to her friend, Pete.

Why don’t you tape the two pieces back together? I’m sure it WILL BE fine,’ Pete replied. Lauren had her doubts about this, but she decided to try it.

She got some tape from her desk and taped the note together as Pete had suggested. But an hour later, when she tried to buy a sandwich, the shop owner refused her note. When she asked why, the surly shop owner said, ‘Sorry, but sometimes two halves DO NOT MAKE (можно DON’T MAKE) a whole.’

Задание 32 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

Russian vinaigrette

Russian vinaigrette is a type of salad common in Russia, which consists of diced carrots, beetroot and potatoes as well as chopped onions and sometimes sauerkraut. Vinaigrette dressing, from which the salad gets ( IT ) name, is poured over the top.

The salad was adapted from European recipes that were popular in the 19th century. However, it is now ( WIDELY ) eaten in Russia than in western Europe.

The salad often appears at celebrations alongside other small dishes, such as cold cuts, cheeses, canapes and open sandwiches. Usually ( THIS ) dishes are laid on the table before the guests arrive.

The colourful salad is low in calories and full of nutrients, so it ( RECOMMEND ) for anyone who is on a diet or is just keen to eat healthily.

Russian vinaigrette

Russian vinaigrette is a type of salad common in Russia, which consists of diced carrots, beetroot and potatoes as well as chopped onions and sometimes sauerkraut. Vinaigrette dressing, from which the salad gets ITS name, is poured over the top.

The salad was adapted from European recipes that were popular in the 19th century. However, it is now MORE WIDELY eaten in Russia than in western Europe.

The salad often appears at celebrations alongside other small dishes, such as cold cuts, cheeses, canapes and open sandwiches. Usually THESE dishes are laid on the table before the guests arrive.

The colourful salad is low in calories and full of nutrients, so it IS RECOMMENDED for anyone who is on a diet or is just keen to eat healthily.

Задание 33 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

Oases

Oases are areas where trees and plants grow around a body of water in the middle of a desert. They are ( USUAL ) phenomena because there is so little water or vegetation in desert areas.

How does the water in an oasis get there? It doesn’t come from the sky, but rather, from underneath the ground. Believe it or not, there are underground rivers and layers of rock which contain water beneath the ( SAND ) desert floor.

Pressure from underneath these water sources pushes the water to the surface. In other cases, people have drawn the water out ( ARTIFICIAL ), through the use of man-made wells.

An oasis can be quite small, only able to support a limited number of trees and to supply a little water for those who pass by. Other oases are big enough to supply considerable populations of people with ( DRINK ) water.

People who survive on oases must be very ( CARE ) with how they use the water, because they must use it to grow food as well as to drink.

Many oases have survived for years. They have been of great ( IMPORTANT ) in terms of setting up trade routes across the desert.

Oases

Oases are areas where trees and plants grow around a body of water in the middle of a desert. They are UNUSUAL phenomena because there is so little water or vegetation in desert areas.

How does the water in an oasis get there? It doesn’t come from the sky, but rather, from underneath the ground. Believe it or not, there are underground rivers and layers of rock which contain water beneath the SANDY desert floor.

Pressure from underneath these water sources pushes the water to the surface. In other cases, people have drawn the water out ARTIFICIALLY, through the use of man-made wells.

An oasis can be quite small, only able to support a limited number of trees and to supply a little water for those who pass by. Other oases are big enough to supply considerable populations of people with DRINKING water.

People who survive on oases must be very CAREFUL with how they use the water, because they must use it to grow food as well as to drink.

Many oases have survived for years. They have been of great IMPORTANCE in terms of setting up trade routes across the desert.

Задание 34 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

The London Tube

Have you ever wondered what strange things lurk within the London Underground (or ‘Tube’) system? The first things people usually think of are the mice that you can occasionally see ( RUN ) along the tracks.

In fact, mice aren’t the only strange things in the Underground system. Passengers leave behind thousands of objects. Items that were once ( THEY ) now reside in London Transport’s lost property office.

The collection is not open to the public, but a wedding dress, sets of false teeth, artificial limbs and a metre-high Mickey Mouse statue are just some of things people could see if they visited the office. Objects that ( LEAVE ) in the office for more than three months are donated to charity or sold at auction.

The London Tube

Have you ever wondered what strange things lurk within the London Underground (or ‘Tube’) system? The first things people usually think of are the mice that you can occasionally see RUNNING along the tracks.

In fact, mice aren’t the only strange things in the Underground system. Passengers leave behind thousands of objects. Items that were once THEIRS now reside in London Transport’s lost property office.

The collection is not open to the public, but a wedding dress, sets of false teeth, artificial limbs and a metre-high Mickey Mouse statue are just some of things people could see if they visited the office. Objects that ARE LEFT (можно HAVE BEEN LEFT) in the office for more than three months are donated to charity or sold at auction.

Задание 35 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

Found money

Shelley was reading an article about some money a builder had found in an old house. He’d gone to the police with £64,000. She asked her friend Paul what he would do if he ( FIND ) a large amount of money.

‘Oh, the same thing he did,’ Paul ( NOT HESITATE ) to respond.
‘It’s not right to keep that kind of money. It’s not just £20, you know.’

Shelley thought about it for several moments. She couldn’t help wondering how the police would know ( WHO ) money it was.

‘Apparently,’ she said, reading the article further, ‘if nobody claims the money after a certain period of time, the police ( GIVE ) it back to the builder.’ She wondered whether the builder would be lucky on this occasion.

Found money

Shelley was reading an article about some money a builder had found in an old house. He’d gone to the police with £64,000. She asked her friend Paul what he would do if he FOUND a large amount of money.

‘Oh, the same thing he did,’ Paul DIDN’T HESITATE to respond.
‘It’s not right to keep that kind of money. It’s not just £20, you know.’

Shelley thought about it for several moments. She couldn’t help wondering how the police would know WHOSE money it was.

‘Apparently,’ she said, reading the article further, ‘if nobody claims the money after a certain period of time, the police WILL GIVE it back to the builder.’ She wondered whether the builder would be lucky on this occasion.

Задание 36 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

ЗаданиеОтвет

Green living

For years, city planners in Sweden have been creating green communities. These are places that use energy ( WISE ) and cut down on waste.

In fact, what was once a d irty ( INDUSTRY ) site has been transformed into this kind of community. The area, known as Western Harbour, is found in Sweden’s third largest city, Malmo.

The area is a marvel when it comes to clean living. It has hardly any streets for cars; homes are linked by walkways and buses provide a regular ( CONNECT ) to the city centre.

Homes were designed with ‘green points’ in mind. A ‘green point’ could be a plot of ground for growing vegetables, a nest box for birds or a ( CONTAIN ) in which residents can plant flowers. Each home is required to have ten green points.

The community is powered by 100% renewable energy. Solar panels collect energy from the sun and a nearby wind turbine provides an ( END ) supply of electricity.

More than just being green, architects made sure the housing ( DEVELOP ) was pleasant to look at. Its combination of modern, futuristic design with more traditional styles helps make Western Harbour a joy to live in.

Green living

For years, city planners in Sweden have been creating green communities. These are places that use energy WISELY and cut down on waste.

In fact, what was once a dirty INDUSTRIAL site has been transformed into this kind of community. The area, known as Western Harbour, is found in Sweden’s third largest city, Malmo.

The area is a marvel when it comes to clean living. It has hardly any streets for cars; homes are linked by walkways and buses provide a regular CONNECTION to the city centre.

Homes were designed with ‘green points’ in mind. A ‘green point’ could be a plot of ground for growing vegetables, a nest box for birds or a CONTAINER in which residents can plant flowers. Each home is required to have ten green points.

The community is powered by 100% renewable energy. Solar panels collect energy from the sun and a nearby wind turbine provides an ENDLESS supply of electricity.

More than just being green, architects made sure the housing DEVELOPMENT was pleasant to look at. Its combination of modern, futuristic design with more traditional styles helps make Western Harbour a joy to live in.

Задание 37 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

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Swimming competition

Jane was upset after she finished the regional swimming competition. She had practised every day for several months, but despite all her hard work, she finished in ( TWO ) place.

She tried not to be too disappointed about it, but at her swimming practice the other day she ( SWIM ) her fastest time ever, which had made her really hopeful of winning the competition this time.

Her father tried to make her feel better. “There are plenty of other swimming competitions to win. Just keep practising and one day you ( GET ) the gold!” he told her, making her laugh by stretching his arms up in the air so vigorously that he fell off his chair.

Swimming competition

Jane was upset after she finished the regional swimming competition. She had practised every day for several months, but despite all her hard work, she finished in SECOND place.

She tried not to be too disappointed about it, but at her swimming practice the other day she HAD SWUM her fastest time ever, which had made her really hopeful of winning the competition this time.

Her father tried to make her feel better. “There are plenty of other swimming competitions to win. Just keep practising and one day you WILL GET the gold!” he told her, making her laugh by stretching his arms up in the air so vigorously that he fell off his chair.

Задание 38 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

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Where ships go to die

We might not think about it much, but most of us owe a lot to the shipping industry. Almost anyone who ( BUY ) a car, clothes or furniture recently has benefitted from the industry, because it is the cheapest way to transport goods.

No matter where a ship has sailed during its life, most ships ( SEND ) to South Asia when they are no longer usable. India, Bangladesh and Pakistan alone take up to 70% of worn-out ships.

The ships rest along the shoreline, where workers climb on them and take them apart piece by piece. In 2012, observers recorded that 365 ships ( LIE ) on beaches in this region.

The work is quite dangerous, and occasionally, workers lose ( THEY ) lives. More must be done to make this work safe.

Where ships go to die

We might not think about it much, but most of us owe a lot to the shipping industry. Almost anyone who HAS BOUGHT a car, clothes or furniture recently has benefitted from the industry, because it is the cheapest way to transport goods.

No matter where a ship has sailed during its life, most ships ARE SENT to South Asia when they are no longer usable. India, Bangladesh and Pakistan alone take up to 70% of worn-out ships.

The ships rest along the shoreline, where workers climb on them and take them apart piece by piece. In 2012, observers recorded that 365 ships WERE LYING on beaches in this region.

The work is quite dangerous, and occasionally, workers lose THEIR lives. More must be done to make this work safe.

Задание 39 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

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Altai mountains

Russia’s Altai mountains are situated near the country’s border with Mongolia, China and Kazakhstan. The mountain range is quite high and ( EXTREME ) difficult to cross.

The mountains were formed as a result of the Indian subcontinent pushing into southern Asia. There are many fault lines that run through the region, and although it is a rare ( OCCUR ), the region sometimes has very large earthquakes.

The name Altai means ‘golden mountain’ in the ( MONGOLIA ) language. The tallest peak is Belukha mountain, which actually has two peaks.

One of the peaks reaches a height of 4,440 metres, and the other reaches metres. The mountains are home to several glaciers, lakes and rivers, and many ( DIFFER ) types of plants and animals are found in its range of habitats.

Many species in the region have existed since the last ice age. This is because the Altai mountain range is one of the few places in the world whose climate has remained largely ( CHANGE ) since that period.

The mountain range and its surrounding area is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Because of the mountains’ stunning natural beauty, the region has become quite popular with ( TOUR ).

Altai mountains

Russia’s Altai mountains are situated near the country’s border with Mongolia, China and Kazakhstan. The mountain range is quite high and EXTREMELY difficult to cross.

The mountains were formed as a result of the Indian subcontinent pushing into southern Asia. There are many fault lines that run through the region, and although it is a rare OCCURENCE, the region sometimes has very large earthquakes.

The name Altai means ‘golden mountain’ in the MONGOLIAN language. The tallest peak is Belukha mountain, which actually has two peaks.

One of the peaks reaches a height of 4,440 metres, and the other reaches metres. The mountains are home to several glaciers, lakes and rivers, and many DIFFERENT types of plants and animals are found in its range of habitats.

Many species in the region have existed since the last ice age. This is because the Altai mountain range is one of the few places in the world whose climate has remained largely UNCHANGED since that period.

The mountain range and its surrounding area is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Because of the mountains’ stunning natural beauty, the region has become quite popular with TOURISTS.

Задание 40 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

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GUM department stores

GUM is the name of the large department store in Moscow that faces Red Square. It used to be a chain of shops in the former republics of the Soviet Union, at which time these shops ( KNOW ) as State Department Store, although GUM now stands for Main Department Store.

The structure on Red Square where GUM is located has been there since the early 1890s. It’s one of the ( FAMOUS ) buildings in the city of Moscow.

The building is nearly a quarter of a kilometre long. Shops inside the building are situated on a long corridor with a glass roof, and each shop sits inside an archway, creating a luxurious shopping experience. The building ( IT ) is a work of art.

GUM department stores

GUM is the name of the large department store in Moscow that faces Red Square. It used to be a chain of shops in the former republics of the Soviet Union, at which time these shops WERE KNOWN as State Department Store, although GUM now stands for Main Department Store.

The structure on Red Square where GUM is located has been there since the early 1890s. It’s one of the MOST FAMOUS buildings in the city of Moscow.

The building is nearly a quarter of a kilometre long. Shops inside the building are situated on a long corridor with a glass roof, and each shop sits inside an archway, creating a luxurious shopping experience. The building ITSELF is a work of art.

Задание 41 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

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Identical twins

Beth and Mary are identical twins. They look exactly alike, and when they were ( CHILD ), their teachers didn’t know which twin was which.

People called them by the wrong name all the time! Although the girls ( HAVE ) plenty of opportunities to play tricks, they never did.

As adults, however, they once took a job on a practical joke show, where they ( PRETEND ) they were in a bathroom looking into a mirror. The mirror was actually glass, with Beth on one side and Mary on the other.

A woman came into the bathroom. She looked in the ‘mirror’ and saw Beth and her ‘reflection’, but she couldn’t see anything on her side. ( FEEL ) confused, the woman asked, ‘Is there something wrong with this mirror, or is it just me?!’

Identical twins

Beth and Mary are identical twins. They look exactly alike, and when they were CHILDREN, their teachers didn’t know which twin was which.

People called them by the wrong name all the time! Although the girls HAD plenty of opportunities to play tricks, they never did.

As adults, however, they once took a job on a practical joke show, where they PRETENDED they were in a bathroom looking into a mirror. The mirror was actually glass, with Beth on one side and Mary on the other.

A woman came into the bathroom. She looked in the ‘mirror’ and saw Beth and her ‘reflection’, but she couldn’t see anything on her side. FEELING confused, the woman asked, ‘Is there something wrong with this mirror, or is it just me?!’

Задание 42 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

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Stella McCartney

Stella McCartney is more than just the daughter of music legend Paul McCartney of the Beatles. She is famous in her own right as a fashion ( DESIGN ).

Born in London in 1971, McCartney studied at Central Saint Martins College of Arts and Design. Alexander McQueen, another ( GLOBE ) icon of the fashion world, studied there as well.

Despite her well-known last name, not everyone was sure that she would be ( SUCCESS ) in the fashion industry, but she worked hard to create eye-catching clothing and won early awards for her sharp, confident style.

Of course, she was well-connected to the rich and famous before she made a name for herself in fashion. During her ( GRADUATE ) famous supermodels including Naomi Campbell and Kate Moss wore her clothes for the college’s runway show.

Her clothes are popular and sell well. Her 2005 collection for H&M clothing shops was designed to offer her fans a more affordable range, and sold out almost ( IMMEDIATE ).

Aside from day and evening wear, she has designed clothing for events, including the uniforms for the British ( COMPETE ) to wear in the 2012 London Olympics. She has also designed underwear, a range of skincare products and her own perfume.

Stella McCartney

Stella McCartney is more than just the daughter of music legend Paul McCartney of the Beatles. She is famous in her own right as a fashion DESIGNER.

Born in London in 1971, McCartney studied at Central Saint Martins College of Arts and Design. Alexander McQueen, another GLOBAL icon of the fashion world, studied there as well.

Despite her well-known last name, not everyone was sure that she would be SUCCESSFUL in the fashion industry, but she worked hard to create eye-catching clothing and won early awards for her sharp, confident style.

Of course, she was well-connected to the rich and famous before she made a name for herself in fashion. During her GRADUATION famous supermodels including Naomi Campbell and Kate Moss wore her clothes for the college’s runway show.

Her clothes are popular and sell well. Her 2005 collection for H&M clothing shops was designed to offer her fans a more affordable range, and sold out almost IMMEDIATELY.

Aside from day and evening wear, she has designed clothing for events, including the uniforms for the British COMPETITORS to wear in the 2012 London Olympics. She has also designed underwear, a range of skincare products and her own perfume.

Задание 43 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

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Funny noise

Maria was lying on her bed reading quietly. All of a sudden, she heard the strangest noise, which sounded something like insects, ( COME ) from the living room.

Initially, she tried to ignore it but it just became more and more annoying. So, finally she ( GO ) to investigate.

There in the living room, on the coffee table, was her laptop. On the screen, a pop-up advert ( APPEAR ), probably half an hour earlier, for a game with thousands of crickets. With one quick click, there was peace and quiet in the house again.

Funny noise

Maria was lying on her bed reading quietly. All of a sudden, she heard the strangest noise, which sounded something like insects, COMING from the living room.

Initially, she tried to ignore it but it just became more and more annoying. So, finally she WENT to investigate.

There in the living room, on the coffee table, was her laptop. On the screen, a pop-up advert HAD APPEARED, probably half an hour earlier, for a game with thousands of crickets. With one quick click, there was peace and quiet in the house again.

Задание 44 на лексико-грамматическую трансформацию

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A knight in shining armour

Elton John is an extremely famous British pop star. People all around the world ( HEAR ) of him, but not so many know that his official title is Sir Elton John? How did he become ‘Sir Elton ?

In past centuries, only successful military commanders and politicians ( AWARD ) the title for services to their country. However, in 1917, the British government decided to extend the title to other citizens.

To become a Sir, you have to ‘receive a knighthood’, an honour only ever ( GIVE ) to men. However, many women, such as Judi Dench and Julie Andrews, have the equivalent title for females, which is ‘Dame’

When a person becomes a Sir or a Dame, they can add this title to their name. It’s one of the ( GREAT ) honours a person can receive in the UK.

A knight in shining armour

Elton John is an extremely famous British pop star. People all around the world HAVE HEARD of him, but not so many know that his official title is Sir Elton John? How did he become ‘Sir Elton ?

In past centuries, only successful military commanders and politicians WERE AWARDED the title for services to their country. However, in 1917, the British government decided to extend the title to other citizens.

To become a Sir, you have to ‘receive a knighthood’, an honour only ever GIVEN to men. However, many women, such as Judi Dench and Julie Andrews, have the equivalent title for females, which is ‘Dame’

When a person becomes a Sir or a Dame, they can add this title to their name. It’s one of the GREATEST honours a person can receive in the UK.