Тексты и заголовки

Установление соответствия между текстами и заголовками является одним из заданий на чтение ЕГЭ по английскому языку. Здесь мы приводим разбор текстов и заголовков, представленных в открытой базе Федерального института педагогических измерений (фипи).

Задание 1 >>
Задание 2 >>
Задание 3 >>
Задание 4 >>

Задание 1 на тексты и заголовки

Задание
Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.

текстыответ

1. New rules to follow
2. New perspectives
3. Perfect for a quiet holiday
4. Land of nature wonders
5. A visit to the zoo
6. Perfect for an active holiday
7. Difficult start
8. Bad for animals

A.
The mountains of Scotland (we call them the Highlands) are а wild and beautiful part of Europe. A golden eagle flies over the mountains. A deer walks through the silence of the forest. Salmon and trout swim in the clean, pure water of the rivers. Some say that not only fish swim in the deep water of Loch Ness. Speak to the people living by the Loch. Each person has a story of the monster, and some have photographs.

B.
Tresco is a beautiful island with no cars, crowds or noise – just flowers, birds, long sandy beaches and the Tresco Abbey Garden. John and Wendy Pyatt welcome you to the Island Hotel, famous for delicious food, comfort and brilliant service. You will appreciate superb accommodation, free saunas and the indoor swimming pool.

C.
The Camel and Wildlife Safari is a unique mixture of the traditional and modern. Kenya’s countryside suits the Safari purposes exceptionally well. Tourists will have a chance to explore the bush country near Samburu, to travel on a camel back or to sleep out under the stars. Modern safari vehicles are always available for those who prefer comfort.

D.
Arrival can be the hardest part of a trip. It is late, you are road-weary, and everything is new and strange. You need an affordable place to sleep, something to eat and drink, and probably a way to get around. But in general, it’s a wonderful trip, full of wonderful and unusual places. Whether it is the first stop on a trip or the fifth city visited, every traveller feels a little overwhelmed stepping onto a new street in a new city.

E.
No zoo has enough money to provide basic habitats or environments for all the species they keep. Most animals are put in a totally artificial environment, isolated from everything they would meet in their natural habitat. Many will agree that this isolation is harmful to the most of zoo inhabitants, it can even amount to cruelty.

F.
A new London Zoo Project is a ten year project to secure the future for the Zoo and for many endangered animals. The plan has been devised by both animal and business experts to provide world-leading accommodation for all our animals, to more fully engage and inform people about conservation issues, to redesign certain aspects of Zoo layout.

G.
Leave-no-trace camping is an increasingly popular approach to travel in wilderness areas. As the term suggests, the goal is for the camper to leave as little impact as possible on the place he is visiting. One of its mottos is “Take nothing but pictures. Leave nothing but footprints.” Its simplest and most fundamental rule is: pack it in, pack it out, but it goes beyond that.

1. New rules to follow
2. New perspectives
3. Perfect for a quiet holiday
4. Land of nature wonders
5. A visit to the zoo
6. Perfect for an active holiday
7. Difficult start
8. Bad for animals

A. – 4. Land of nature wonders (земля чудес природы)
Дать правильный ответ помогает перечисление прекрасных творений природы: золотой орел летит над горами (golden eagle flies over the mountains), олень шествует сквозь тишину леса (a deer walks through the silence of the forest), лосось и форель плавают в кристально-чистой воде (salmon and trout swim in the clean, pure water of the rivers) и даже имеются легендарный монстр (monster).

B. – 3. Perfect for a quiet holiday (замечательное место для тихого выходного)
При выборе данного заголовка надо ориентироваться на то, что на острове Треско нет машин, толпы людей и шума (no cars, crowds or noise); есть только цветы, птицы, большие песчаные пляжи (just flowers, birds, long sandy beaches) и т.п. Таким образом, описывается тихая идиллическая атмосфера.

C. – 6. Perfect for an active holiday (отличное место для активного выходного)
Заголовок выбирается по ряду причин. Во-первых, само сафари (safari) предполагает активное движение (сафари – это охота на диких животных в африканских заповедниках). Во-вторых, идея активности подчеркивается описанием того, чем можно здесь заняться: исследовать заросли (explore the bush country), покататься верхом на верблюде (travel on a camel back), ночевать под открытым небом (sleep out under the stars).

D. – 7. Difficult start (трудное начало)
Обратите внимание на самое первое предложение: Прибытие на место может быть самой трудной частью путешествия (Arrival can be the hardest part of a trip). Здесь речь идет о начала (старте – start) пребывания в новой местности. В самом начале вы еще устали от дороги (road-weary), и все для вас еще новое и незнакомое (everything is new and strange).

E. – 8. Bad for animals (плохо для животных)
Здесь надо прежде всего обратить внимание на то, что говориться о вредности изоляции обитателей зоопарка (this isolation is harmful to the most of zoo inhabitants). Данная изоляция может быть даже признана жестокостью по отношению к животным (it can even amount to cruelty).

F. – 2. New perspectives (новые перспективы)
Прежде всего надо принять во внимание фразу “проект нового Лондонского зоопарка” (a new London Zoo Project) и слово “план” (the plan). Когда речь идет о проекте и плане, то это значит, что речь идет о чем-то, что произойдет в перспективе.

G. – 1. New rules to follow (новые правила)
Ключевыми фразами здесь являются: ничего не забирать с собой, кроме фотографий (take nothing but pictures), ничего не оставлять после себя, кроме следов (leave nothing but footprints). Эти фразы являются указаниями, т.е. правилами поведения (rules), которым надо следовать (follow).

Задание 2 на тексты и заголовки

Задание
Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.

текстыответ

1. Old word – new meaning
2. Not for profit
3. Generosity to taste
4. New word – old service
5. For travellers’ needs
6. For body and mind
7. Under lock and key
8. Cheap yet safe

A.
The residents of the southern United States are particularly warm to visitors, ready to welcome them to their homes and to the South in general. Food places an important role in the traditions of southern hospitality. A cake or other delicacy is often brought to the door of a new neighbor as a means of introduction. When a serious illness occurs, neighbors, friends, and church members generally bring food to that family as a form of support and encouragement.

B.
Destination spas exist for those who only can take a short term trip, but still want to develop healthy habits. Guests reside and participate in the program at a destination spa instead of just visiting it for a treatment or pure vacation. Typically over a seven-day stay, such facilities provide a program that includes spa services, physical fitness activities, wellness education, healthy cuisine and special interest programming.

C.
When people travel, stay in a hotel, eat out, or go to the movies, they rarely think that they are experiencing many-sided, vast and very diverse hospitality industry. The tourism industry is very challenging for those who work there, as they should be able to meet a wide variety of needs and to be flexible enough to anticipate them. The right person to help us feel at home likes working with the public, and enjoys solving puzzles.

D.
Ten years ago, with the help of friends and family, Veit Kühne founded Hospitality Club as a general-purpose Internet-based hospitality exchange organization. Now, it is one of the largest hospitality networks with members in 226 countries. This is a completely free organization, which involves no money. The core activity is the exchange of accommodation, when hosts offer their guests the possibility to stay free at their homes.

E.
To the ancient Greeks and Romans, hospitality was a divine right. The host was expected to make sure the needs of his guests were seen to. In the contemporary West, hospitality is rarely associated with generously provided care and kindness to whoever is in need or strangers. Now it is only a service that includes hotels, casinos, and resorts, which offer comfort and guidance to strangers, but only as part of a business relationship.

F.
A bed and breakfast is a type of overnight accommodation with breakfast offered in someone’s private home. This type of service was established in Europe many years ago and its roots lie a long way back in history when monasteries provided bed and breakfasts for travelers. But the term appeared in the UK only after World War II, when numerous foreigners needed a place to stay and local people opened their homes and started serving breakfast to those overnight guests.

G.
Hostels are nothing more than budget oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, and share a bathroom, lounge and sometimes a kitchen. But somehow there are misconceptions that a hostel is a kind of homeless shelter, a dangerous place where young people can face potential threat. This does not reflect the high quality and level of professionalism in many modern hostels.

1. Old word – new meaning
2. Not for profit
3. Generosity to taste
4. New word – old service
5. For travellers’ needs
6. For body and mind
7. Under lock and key
8. Cheap yet safe

A. – 3. Generosity to taste (испробовать великодушие)
Слово generosity означает “великодушие, щедрость”. В данном отрывке речь идет о великодушии жителей юга США, которые очень теплы к гостям (warm to visitors), рады пригласить их к себе домой (ready to welcome them to their homes), приносят еду к дверям нового соседа (a cake or other delicacy is often brought to the door of a new neighbor) либо к больному человеку в знак поддержки (when a serious illness occurs, neighbors, friends, and church members generally bring food to that family as a form of support and encouragement).

B. – 6. For body and mind (для тела и ума)
В данном отрывке речь идет о минеральных курортах (destination spas), которые, как известно, приносят благо телу человека (body). Но в ряде курортов отдыхающие принимают участие в мероприятиях, которые полезны не только телу, но и уму (mind): получают знания о здоровье (wellness education), участвуют в специализированных программах (special interest programming).

C. – 5. For travellers’ needs (для нужд путешественников)
Выбор заголовка обусловлен прямым указанием на то, что работники сферы туризма должны уметь удовлетворить широкий спектр желаний путешественников (be able to meet a wide variety of needs) и быть достаточно “гибкими” для прогнозировать эти желания (to anticipate them).

D. – 2. Not for profit (не ради выгоды)
Речь идет об онлайн организации, занимающейся подбором жилья. Данная организация абсолютно бесплатна (this is a completely free organization, which involves no money).

E. – 1. Old word – new meaning (древний мир – иное понимание)
Здесь рассказывается об ином понимании (new meaning) гостеприимства у древних греков и римлян, т.е. в старом мире (old word). В древнем мире хозяин должен был быть внимательным к нуждам своих гостей (The host was expected to make sure the needs of his guests were seen to). В современном мире гостеприимство редко подразумевает заботу и доброту (In the contemporary West, hospitality is rarely associated with generously provided care and kindness).

F. – 4. New word – old service (новое слово – старая услуга)
В отрывке речь идет о древней традиции предоставлять еду и ночлег странствующим. В современном мире это также имеет место быть, однако обозначается сочетанием bed and breakfast, которое появилось после второй мировой войны.

G. – 8. Cheap yet safe (дешевые, но безопасные)
В отрывке говорится о дешевых гостиницах (hostels), которые несправедливо ассоциируются с опасными местами, таящими угрозу (a dangerous place where young people can face potential threat). Такое отношение не отражает высокое качество и уровень профессионализма во многих дешевых гостиницах (this does not reflect the high quality and level of professionalism in many modern hostels).

Задание 3 на тексты и заголовки

Задание
Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.

текстыответ

1. Earth is not enough
2. The word came first
3. Challenging the skilful
4. Coloured stereotype
5. Taste of culture
6. Not only exercising
7. To preserve and respect
8. Follow the idol

A.
Entering the English language in the late nineteenth century, the word safari meant a trip to Africa for a big-game hunt. Today the term refers to a trip taken not to hunt, but to observe and photograph the animals and other wildlife. This activity had become so popular that it has originated a certain style of fashion. It includes khaki clothing, belted bush jackets, helmets and animal skin prints, like leopard’s skin, for example.

B.
The purpose of ecological tourism is to educate the traveler, provide funds for conservation and promote respect for different cultures and human rights. The participants of ecotourism want the environment to stay relatively untouched by human intervention, so that coming generations can experience it fully. That is why ecotourism appeals to ecologically and socially conscious individuals, who don’t mind volunteering.

C.
People who like seeing dangerous places, such as mountains, jungles and deserts, participating in dangerous events, and experiencing extreme sport definitely appreciate extreme tourism or shock tourism. This type of tourism is based on two key factors. The first one is an addiction to adrenaline caused by an element of risk. And another one is the opportunity to show a high degree of engagement and professionalism.

D.
Culinary tourism is something you can enjoy if you like good food and want each of your dishes to be a unique and memorable experience. But culinary tourism also considers food to be a vital component of traditions and history of any country, region or city. The tourists believe that by experiencing each other’s foods people can learn something new about each other’s lives.

E.
Space tourism used to mean ordinary members of the public buying tickets to travel to space and back. That is why many people find this idea revolutionary. But over the past few years a growing volume of work has been done on the subject, and it’s clear that commercial space tourism is a realistic target for business today. Market research has shown that many people in the developed countries would like to take a trip to space if it were possible.

F.
The sports tourism industry has earned an international reputation because it is open to everyone: amateurs, fans, and professional athletes with their trainers and coaches who come for a range of activities from training camps through friendship games to international championship competitions. Sport tourism combines the opportunity for athletes and sportspeople to benefit from sports activities with a relaxing and enjoyable vacation.

G.
To go to Tunisia to explore the place where the film Star Wars was made or to New Zealand after The Lord of the Rings is very easy for those who practice pop-culture tourism and like to travel to locations featured in literature, films, music, or any other form of popular entertainment. But pop-culture tourism is not only about going to popular destinations. In some respects it is very similar to a pilgrimage, only the places are new, for example Elvis Presley’s Graceland.

1. Earth is not enough
2. The word came first
3. Challenging the skilful
4. Coloured stereotype
5. Taste of culture
6. Not only exercising
7. To preserve and respect
8. Follow the idol

A. – 2. The word came first (сначала появилось слово)
В отрывке говорится о слове “сафари” (safari), которое появилось в конце 19 века (in the late nineteenth century) и первоначально означало охоту в Африке (meant a trip to Africa for a big-game hunt). Сегодня данным словом обозначается не только охота, но и наблюдение и фотографирование диких животных (observe and photograph the animals and other wildlife). Таким образом, сначала появилось слово, которое потом обросло значениями.

B. – 7. To preserve and respect (сохранять и уважать)
Здесь речь идет об экологическом туризме, цель которого заниматься образованием путешествующих (educate the traveler), обеспечивать средства для сохранения и уважения различных культур и человеческих прав (promote respect for different cultures and human rights).

C. – 3. Challenging the skilful (испытание для профессионалов)
Здесь речь идет об экстремальном туризме (extreme tourism or shock tourism), который предполагает испытания с элементом риска (element of risk) и проявление высокой степени профессионализма (show a high degree of engagement and professionalism). Таким образом, этот туризм – вызов для тех, кто готов в трудностям.

D. – 5. Taste of culture (вкус культуры)
В тексте речь идет о кулинарном туризме. Кулинарный – связанный с блюдами, со вкусом (taste) блюд; туризм – поездки за рубеж, соприкосновение с другими культурами (culture).

E. – 1. Earth is not enough (Земли недостаточно)
В тексте речь идет о космическом туризме (space tourism), который означает тот факт, что людям для путешествий уже не достаточно Земли (Earth is not enough).

F. – 6. Not only exercising (не только физические занятия)
Отрывок повествует о спортивном туризме (sport tourism), который позволяет совмещать занятие спортом (sports activities) с расслабляющим отдыхом (a relaxing and enjoyable vacation).

G. – 8. Follow the idol (вслед за идолом)
В отрывке речь идет о поп-туризме, т.е. о поездках к местам, в которых жили знаменитости (идолы культуры), как например дом Элвиса Пресли (Elvis Presley’s Graceland).

Задание 4 на тексты и заголовки

Задание
Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.

текстыответ

1. Inspired by noble goals
2. Protected by law
3. Small size – great opportunities
4. Little experience – big success
5. Hard to see and to believe
6. Hard to explain how they could
7. Breathtaking just to watch
8. From travelling to discovery

A.
Charles Darwin’s five-year voyage on H.M.S. Beagle has become legendary and greatly influenced his masterwork, the book, On the Origin of Species. Darwin didn’t actually formulate his theory of evolution while sailing around the world aboard the Royal Navy ship. But the exotic plants and animals he encountered challenged his thinking and led him to consider scientific evidence in new ways.

B.
The 19th century was a remarkable time for exploration. Vast portions of the globe, such as the interior of Africa, were mapped by explorers and adventurers. It was the time when David Livingstone became convinced of his mission to reach new peoples in Africa and introduce them to Christianity, as well as free them from slavery.

C.
Louis Pasteur’s various investigations convinced him of the rightness of his germ theory of disease, which holds that germs attack the body from outside. Many felt that such tiny organisms as germs could not possibly kill larger ones such as humans. But Pasteur extended this theory to explain the causes of many diseases – including cholera, TB and smallpox – and their prevention by vaccination.

D.
Frederick Law Olmsted, the architect who designed New York City’s Central Park, called the Yosemite Valley “the greatest glory of nature.” Californians convinced one of their representatives, Senator John Conness, to do something about its protection. In May 1864, Conness introduced legislation to bring the Yosemite Valley under the control of the state of California. President Abraham Lincoln signed the bill into law.

E.
The Maya thrived for nearly 2,000 years. Without the use of the cartwheel or metal tools, they built massive stone structures. They were accomplished scientists. They tracked a solar year of 365 days and one of the few surviving ancient Maya books contains tables of eclipses. From observatories, like the one at Chichen Itza, they tracked the progress of the war star, Mars.

F.
Bali has been a surfing hotspot since the early 20th century, and continues to attract surfers from all over the world. The island’s small size and unique geography provides wonderful surfing conditions, in all seasons, for surfers of any level of experience. Inexperienced surfers might like to try Kuta’s kind waves, while more able surfers will try Nusa Dua’s powerful waves.

G.
Base jumping is an extreme sport, one which only very adventurous travelers enjoy. Some base jumpers leap off bridges, others off buildings and the most extreme off cliffs in Norway. Once a year, base jumpers in the US get to leap off the New River Bridge in West Virginia. During the annual Bridge Day, hundreds of jumpers can go off the bridge legally. Thousands of spectators show up to watch.

1. Inspired by noble goals
2. Protected by law
3. Small size – great opportunities
4. Little experience – big success
5. Hard to see and to believe
6. Hard to explain how they could
7. Breathtaking just to watch
8. From travelling to discovery

A. – 8. From travelling to discovery (от путешествия к открытию)
В отрывке речь идет о пятидневном морском путешествии Чарльза Дарвина (Charles Darwin’s five-year voyage on H.M.S. Beagle), которое повлияла на его главное открытие – работу “О происхождение видов” (On the Origin of Species), где он переосмыслил многие научные данные.

B. – 1. Inspired by noble goals (вдохновленный благородными целями)
В тексте упоминается Дэвид Ливингстоун, который был убежден в собственной высокой миссии (convinced of his mission) принести христианство африканцам и освободить их от рабства (reach new peoples in Africa and introduce them to Christianity, as well as free them from slavery). Таким образом, он следовал благородным целям.

C. – 5. Hard to see and to believe (трудно увидеть и поверить)
В отрывке говорится об открытии бактерий Луи Пастером. Было сложно поверить в то, что такие микроорганизмы, которые сложно увидеть, могут убить человека (many felt that such tiny organisms as germs could not possibly kill larger ones such as humans).

D. – 2. Protected by law (под защитой закона)
Здесь речь идет о Йосемитской долине, которая была названа величайшей славой природы (the greatest glory of nature) и отдана под охрану закона штата Калифорния (under the control of the state of California). Абрахам Линкольн подписал специальный закон (President Abraham Lincoln signed the bill into law).

E. – 6. Hard to explain how they could (трудно объяснить, как они могли)
Речь идет о народе Майя. Трудно объяснить, как они могли построить массивные каменные сооружения которые без использования колеса и металлических приспособлений (Without the use of the cartwheel or metal tools, they built massive stone structures).

F. – 3. Small size – great opportunities (небольшой размер – большие возможности)
Речь идет о небольшом острове Бали, который имеет удивительные условия для занятия серфингом спортсменов любого уровня (wonderful surfing conditions, in all seasons, for surfers of any level of experience). Таким образом, небольшая территория обладает большими возможностями.

G. – 7. Breathtaking just to watch (дух захватывает смотреть)
Бейс-джампинг, т.е. экстремальные прыжки с мостов (off bridges), со зданий (off buildings), со скал (off cliffs), – это захватывающее дух зрелище, на которое собираются тысячи зрителей (Thousands of spectators show up to watch).