Тексты и заголовки

Установление соответствия между текстами и заголовками является одним из заданий на чтение ЕГЭ по английскому языку. Здесь мы приводим разбор текстов и заголовков, представленных в открытой базе Федерального института педагогических измерений (фипи).

Задание формулируется следующим образом: “Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.”

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Задание 1 на тексты и заголовки

1. New rules to follow 5. A visit to the zoo
2. New perspectives 6. Perfect for an active holiday
3. Perfect for a quiet holiday 7. Difficult start
4. Land of nature wonders 8. Bad for animals

A) The mountains of Scotland (we call them the Highlands) are а wild and beautiful part of Europe. A golden eagle flies over the mountains. A deer walks through the silence of the forest. Salmon and trout swim in the clean, pure water of the rivers. Some say that not only fish swim in the deep water of Loch Ness. Speak to the people living by the Loch. Each person has a story of the monster, and some have photographs.

B) Tresco is a beautiful island with no cars, crowds or noise – just flowers, birds, long sandy beaches and the Tresco Abbey Garden. John and Wendy Pyatt welcome you to the Island Hotel, famous for delicious food, comfort and brilliant service. You will appreciate superb accommodation, free saunas and the indoor swimming pool.

C) The Camel and Wildlife Safari is a unique mixture of the traditional and modern. Kenya’s countryside suits the Safari purposes exceptionally well. Tourists will have a chance to explore the bush country near Samburu, to travel on a camel back or to sleep out under the stars. Modern safari vehicles are always available for those who prefer comfort.

D) Arrival can be the hardest part of a trip. It is late, you are road-weary, and everything is new and strange. You need an affordable place to sleep, something to eat and drink, and probably a way to get around. But in general, it’s a wonderful trip, full of wonderful and unusual places. Whether it is the first stop on a trip or the fifth city visited, every traveller feels a little overwhelmed stepping onto a new street in a new city.

E) No zoo has enough money to provide basic habitats or environments for all the species they keep. Most animals are put in a totally artificial environment, isolated from everything they would meet in their natural habitat. Many will agree that this isolation is harmful to the most of zoo inhabitants, it can even amount to cruelty.

F) A new London Zoo Project is a ten year project to secure the future for the Zoo and for many endangered animals. The plan has been devised by both animal and business experts to provide world-leading accommodation for all our animals, to more fully engage and inform people about conservation issues, to redesign certain aspects of Zoo layout.

G) Leave-no-trace camping is an increasingly popular approach to travel in wilderness areas. As the term suggests, the goal is for the camper to leave as little impact as possible on the place he is visiting. One of its mottos is “Take nothing but pictures. Leave nothing but footprints.” Its simplest and most fundamental rule is: pack it in, pack it out, but it goes beyond that.

A) – 4. Land of nature wonders (земля чудес природы)
Дать правильный ответ помогает перечисление прекрасных творений природы: золотой орел летит над горами (golden eagle flies over the mountains), олень шествует сквозь тишину леса (a deer walks through the silence of the forest), лосось и форель плавают в кристально-чистой воде (salmon and trout swim in the clean, pure water of the rivers) и даже имеются легендарный монстр (monster).

B) – 3. Perfect for a quiet holiday (замечательное место для тихого выходного)
При выборе данного заголовка надо ориентироваться на то, что на острове Треско нет машин, толпы людей и шума (no cars, crowds or noise); есть только цветы, птицы, большие песчаные пляжи (just flowers, birds, long sandy beaches) и т.п. Таким образом, описывается тихая идиллическая атмосфера.

C) – 6. Perfect for an active holiday (отличное место для активного выходного)
Заголовок выбирается по ряду причин. Во-первых, само сафари (safari) предполагает активное движение (сафари – это охота на диких животных в африканских заповедниках). Во-вторых, идея активности подчеркивается описанием того, чем можно здесь заняться: исследовать заросли (explore the bush country), покататься верхом на верблюде (travel on a camel back), ночевать под открытым небом (sleep out under the stars).

D) – 7. Difficult start (трудное начало)
Обратите внимание на самое первое предложение: Прибытие на место может быть самой трудной частью путешествия (Arrival can be the hardest part of a trip). Здесь речь идет о начала (старте – start) пребывания в новой местности. В самом начале вы еще устали от дороги (road-weary), и все для вас еще новое и незнакомое (everything is new and strange).

E) – 8. Bad for animals (плохо для животных)
Здесь надо прежде всего обратить внимание на то, что говориться о вредности изоляции обитателей зоопарка (this isolation is harmful to the most of zoo inhabitants). Данная изоляция может быть даже признана жестокостью по отношению к животным (it can even amount to cruelty).

F) – 2. New perspectives (новые перспективы)
Прежде всего надо принять во внимание фразу “проект нового Лондонского зоопарка” (a new London Zoo Project) и слово “план” (the plan). Когда речь идет о проекте и плане, то это значит, что речь идет о чем-то, что произойдет в перспективе.

G) – 1. New rules to follow (новые правила)
Ключевыми фразами здесь являются: ничего не забирать с собой, кроме фотографий (take nothing but pictures), ничего не оставлять после себя, кроме следов (leave nothing but footprints). Эти фразы являются указаниями, т.е. правилами поведения (rules), которым надо следовать (follow).

Задание 2 на тексты и заголовки

1. Old world – new meaning 5. For travellers’ needs
2. Not for profit 6. For body and mind
3. Generosity to taste 7. Under lock and key
4. New word – old service 8. Cheap yet safe

A) The residents of the southern United States are particularly warm to visitors, ready to welcome them to their homes and to the South in general. Food places an important role in the traditions of southern hospitality. A cake or other delicacy is often brought to the door of a new neighbor as a means of introduction. When a serious illness occurs, neighbors, friends, and church members generally bring food to that family as a form of support and encouragement.

B) Destination spas exist for those who only can take a short term trip, but still want to develop healthy habits. Guests reside and participate in the program at a destination spa instead of just visiting it for a treatment or pure vacation. Typically over a seven-day stay, such facilities provide a program that includes spa services, physical fitness activities, wellness education, healthy cuisine and special interest programming.

C) When people travel, stay in a hotel, eat out, or go to the movies, they rarely think that they are experiencing many-sided, vast and very diverse hospitality industry. The tourism industry is very challenging for those who work there, as they should be able to meet a wide variety of needs and to be flexible enough to anticipate them. The right person to help us feel at home likes working with the public, and enjoys solving puzzles.

D) Ten years ago, with the help of friends and family, Veit Kühne founded Hospitality Club as a general-purpose Internet-based hospitality exchange organization. Now, it is one of the largest hospitality networks with members in 226 countries. This is a completely free organization, which involves no money. The core activity is the exchange of accommodation, when hosts offer their guests the possibility to stay free at their homes.

E) To the ancient Greeks and Romans, hospitality was a divine right. The host was expected to make sure the needs of his guests were seen to. In the contemporary West, hospitality is rarely associated with generously provided care and kindness to whoever is in need or strangers. Now it is only a service that includes hotels, casinos, and resorts, which offer comfort and guidance to strangers, but only as part of a business relationship.

F) A bed and breakfast is a type of overnight accommodation with breakfast offered in someone’s private home. This type of service was established in Europe many years ago and its roots lie a long way back in history when monasteries provided bed and breakfasts for travelers. But the term appeared in the UK only after World War II, when numerous foreigners needed a place to stay and local people opened their homes and started serving breakfast to those overnight guests.

G) Hostels are nothing more than budget oriented, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed, and share a bathroom, lounge and sometimes a kitchen. But somehow there are misconceptions that a hostel is a kind of homeless shelter, a dangerous place where young people can face potential threat. This does not reflect the high quality and level of professionalism in many modern hostels.

A) – 3. Generosity to taste (испробовать великодушие)
Слово generosity означает “великодушие, щедрость”. В данном отрывке речь идет о великодушии жителей юга США, которые очень теплы к гостям (warm to visitors), рады пригласить их к себе домой (ready to welcome them to their homes), приносят еду к дверям нового соседа (a cake or other delicacy is often brought to the door of a new neighbor) либо к больному человеку в знак поддержки (when a serious illness occurs, neighbors, friends, and church members generally bring food to that family as a form of support and encouragement).

B) – 6. For body and mind (для тела и ума)
В данном отрывке речь идет о минеральных курортах (destination spas), которые, как известно, приносят благо телу человека (body). Но в ряде курортов отдыхающие принимают участие в мероприятиях, которые полезны не только телу, но и уму (mind): получают знания о здоровье (wellness education), участвуют в специализированных программах (special interest programming).

C) – 5. For travellers’ needs (для нужд путешественников)
Выбор заголовка обусловлен прямым указанием на то, что работники сферы туризма должны уметь удовлетворить широкий спектр желаний путешественников (be able to meet a wide variety of needs) и быть достаточно “гибкими” для прогнозировать эти желания (to anticipate them).

D) – 2. Not for profit (не ради выгоды)
Речь идет об онлайн организации, занимающейся подбором жилья. Данная организация абсолютно бесплатна (this is a completely free organization, which involves no money).

E) – 1. Old world – new meaning (древний мир – иное понимание)
Здесь рассказывается об ином понимании (new meaning) гостеприимства у древних греков и римлян, т.е. в старом мире (old word). В древнем мире хозяин должен был быть внимательным к нуждам своих гостей (The host was expected to make sure the needs of his guests were seen to). В современном мире гостеприимство редко подразумевает заботу и доброту (In the contemporary West, hospitality is rarely associated with generously provided care and kindness).

F) – 4. New word – old service (новое слово – старая услуга)
В отрывке речь идет о древней традиции предоставлять еду и ночлег странствующим. В современном мире это также имеет место быть, однако обозначается сочетанием bed and breakfast, которое появилось после второй мировой войны.

G) – 8. Cheap yet safe (дешевые, но безопасные)
В отрывке говорится о дешевых гостиницах (hostels), которые несправедливо ассоциируются с опасными местами, таящими угрозу (a dangerous place where young people can face potential threat). Такое отношение не отражает высокое качество и уровень профессионализма во многих дешевых гостиницах (this does not reflect the high quality and level of professionalism in many modern hostels).

Задание 3 на тексты и заголовки

1. Earth is not enough 5. Taste of culture
2. The word came first 6. Not only exercising
3. Challenging the skilful 7. To preserve and respect
4. Coloured stereotype 8. Follow the idol

A) Entering the English language in the late nineteenth century, the word safari meant a trip to Africa for a big-game hunt. Today the term refers to a trip taken not to hunt, but to observe and photograph the animals and other wildlife. This activity had become so popular that it has originated a certain style of fashion. It includes khaki clothing, belted bush jackets, helmets and animal skin prints, like leopard’s skin, for example.

B) The purpose of ecological tourism is to educate the traveler, provide funds for conservation and promote respect for different cultures and human rights. The participants of ecotourism want the environment to stay relatively untouched by human intervention, so that coming generations can experience it fully. That is why ecotourism appeals to ecologically and socially conscious individuals, who don’t mind volunteering.

C) People who like seeing dangerous places, such as mountains, jungles and deserts, participating in dangerous events, and experiencing extreme sport definitely appreciate extreme tourism or shock tourism. This type of tourism is based on two key factors. The first one is an addiction to adrenaline caused by an element of risk. And another one is the opportunity to show a high degree of engagement and professionalism.

D) Culinary tourism is something you can enjoy if you like good food and want each of your dishes to be a unique and memorable experience. But culinary tourism also considers food to be a vital component of traditions and history of any country, region or city. The tourists believe that by experiencing each other’s foods people can learn something new about each other’s lives.

E) Space tourism used to mean ordinary members of the public buying tickets to travel to space and back. That is why many people find this idea revolutionary. But over the past few years a growing volume of work has been done on the subject, and it’s clear that commercial space tourism is a realistic target for business today. Market research has shown that many people in the developed countries would like to take a trip to space if it were possible.

F) The sports tourism industry has earned an international reputation because it is open to everyone: amateurs, fans, and professional athletes with their trainers and coaches who come for a range of activities from training camps through friendship games to international championship competitions. Sport tourism combines the opportunity for athletes and sportspeople to benefit from sports activities with a relaxing and enjoyable vacation.

G) To go to Tunisia to explore the place where the film Star Wars was made or to New Zealand after The Lord of the Rings is very easy for those who practice pop-culture tourism and like to travel to locations featured in literature, films, music, or any other form of popular entertainment. But pop-culture tourism is not only about going to popular destinations. In some respects it is very similar to a pilgrimage, only the places are new, for example Elvis Presley’s Graceland.

A) – 2. The word came first (сначала появилось слово)
В отрывке говорится о слове “сафари” (safari), которое появилось в конце 19 века (in the late nineteenth century) и первоначально означало охоту в Африке (meant a trip to Africa for a big-game hunt). Сегодня данным словом обозначается не только охота, но и наблюдение и фотографирование диких животных (observe and photograph the animals and other wildlife). Таким образом, сначала появилось слово, которое потом обросло значениями.

B) – 7. To preserve and respect (сохранять и уважать)
Здесь речь идет об экологическом туризме, цель которого заниматься образованием путешествующих (educate the traveler), обеспечивать средства для сохранения и уважения различных культур и человеческих прав (promote respect for different cultures and human rights).

C) – 3. Challenging the skilful (испытание для профессионалов)
Здесь речь идет об экстремальном туризме (extreme tourism or shock tourism), который предполагает испытания с элементом риска (element of risk) и проявление высокой степени профессионализма (show a high degree of engagement and professionalism). Таким образом, этот туризм – вызов для тех, кто готов в трудностям.

D) – 5. Taste of culture (вкус культуры)
В тексте речь идет о кулинарном туризме. Кулинарный – связанный с блюдами, со вкусом (taste) блюд; туризм – поездки за рубеж, соприкосновение с другими культурами (culture).

E) – 1. Earth is not enough (Земли недостаточно)
В тексте речь идет о космическом туризме (space tourism), который означает тот факт, что людям для путешествий уже не достаточно Земли (Earth is not enough).

F) – 6. Not only exercising (не только физические занятия)
Отрывок повествует о спортивном туризме (sport tourism), который позволяет совмещать занятие спортом (sports activities) с расслабляющим отдыхом (a relaxing and enjoyable vacation).

G) – 8. Follow the idol (вслед за идолом)
В отрывке речь идет о поп-туризме, т.е. о поездках к местам, в которых жили знаменитости (идолы культуры), как например дом Элвиса Пресли (Elvis Presley’s Graceland).

Задание 4 на тексты и заголовки

1. Inspired by noble goals 5. Hard to see and to believe
2. Protected by law 6. Hard to explain how they could
3. Small size – great opportunities 7. Breathtaking just to watch
4. Coloured stereotype 8. From travelling to discovery

A) Charles Darwin’s five-year voyage on H.M.S. Beagle has become legendary and greatly influenced his masterwork, the book, On the Origin of Species. Darwin didn’t actually formulate his theory of evolution while sailing around the world aboard the Royal Navy ship. But the exotic plants and animals he encountered challenged his thinking and led him to consider scientific evidence in new ways.

B) The 19th century was a remarkable time for exploration. Vast portions of the globe, such as the interior of Africa, were mapped by explorers and adventurers. It was the time when David Livingstone became convinced of his mission to reach new peoples in Africa and introduce them to Christianity, as well as free them from slavery.

C) Louis Pasteur’s various investigations convinced him of the rightness of his germ theory of disease, which holds that germs attack the body from outside. Many felt that such tiny organisms as germs could not possibly kill larger ones such as humans. But Pasteur extended this theory to explain the causes of many diseases – including cholera, TB and smallpox – and their prevention by vaccination.

D) Frederick Law Olmsted, the architect who designed New York City’s Central Park, called the Yosemite Valley “the greatest glory of nature.” Californians convinced one of their representatives, Senator John Conness, to do something about its protection. In May 1864, Conness introduced legislation to bring the Yosemite Valley under the control of the state of California. President Abraham Lincoln signed the bill into law.

E) The Maya thrived for nearly 2,000 years. Without the use of the cartwheel or metal tools, they built massive stone structures. They were accomplished scientists. They tracked a solar year of 365 days and one of the few surviving ancient Maya books contains tables of eclipses. From observatories, like the one at Chichen Itza, they tracked the progress of the war star, Mars.

F) Bali has been a surfing hotspot since the early 20th century, and continues to attract surfers from all over the world. The island’s small size and unique geography provides wonderful surfing conditions, in all seasons, for surfers of any level of experience. Inexperienced surfers might like to try Kuta’s kind waves, while more able surfers will try Nusa Dua’s powerful waves.

G) Base jumping is an extreme sport, one which only very adventurous travelers enjoy. Some base jumpers leap off bridges, others off buildings and the most extreme off cliffs in Norway. Once a year, base jumpers in the US get to leap off the New River Bridge in West Virginia. During the annual Bridge Day, hundreds of jumpers can go off the bridge legally. Thousands of spectators show up to watch.

A) – 8. From travelling to discovery (от путешествия к открытию)
В отрывке речь идет о пятидневном морском путешествии Чарльза Дарвина (Charles Darwin’s five-year voyage on H.M.S. Beagle), которое повлияла на его главное открытие – работу “О происхождение видов” (On the Origin of Species), где он переосмыслил многие научные данные.

B) – 1. Inspired by noble goals (вдохновленный благородными целями)
В тексте упоминается Дэвид Ливингстоун, который был убежден в собственной высокой миссии (convinced of his mission) принести христианство африканцам и освободить их от рабства (reach new peoples in Africa and introduce them to Christianity, as well as free them from slavery). Таким образом, он следовал благородным целям.

C) – 5. Hard to see and to believe (трудно увидеть и поверить)
В отрывке говорится об открытии бактерий Луи Пастером. Было сложно поверить в то, что такие микроорганизмы, которые сложно увидеть, могут убить человека (many felt that such tiny organisms as germs could not possibly kill larger ones such as humans).

D) – 2. Protected by law (под защитой закона)
Здесь речь идет о Йосемитской долине, которая была названа величайшей славой природы (the greatest glory of nature) и отдана под охрану закона штата Калифорния (under the control of the state of California). Абрахам Линкольн подписал специальный закон (President Abraham Lincoln signed the bill into law).

E) – 6. Hard to explain how they could (трудно объяснить, как они могли)
Речь идет о народе Майя. Трудно объяснить, как они могли построить массивные каменные сооружения которые без использования колеса и металлических приспособлений (Without the use of the cartwheel or metal tools, they built massive stone structures).

F) – 3. Small size – great opportunities (небольшой размер – большие возможности)
Речь идет о небольшом острове Бали, который имеет удивительные условия для занятия серфингом спортсменов любого уровня (wonderful surfing conditions, in all seasons, for surfers of any level of experience). Таким образом, небольшая территория обладает большими возможностями.

G) – 7. Breathtaking just to watch (дух захватывает смотреть)
Бейс-джампинг, т.е. экстремальные прыжки с мостов (off bridges), со зданий (off buildings), со скал (off cliffs), – это захватывающее дух зрелище, на которое собираются тысячи зрителей (Thousands of spectators show up to watch).

Задание 5 на тексты и заголовки

1. Weather considerations 5. Preparations
2. Joys of biking 6. Meeting the locals
3. On bike from train 7. Beware of thieves
4. Severe adventures 8. Follow the rules

A) If you want to see Europe on $30 a day you might prefer to stay at hostels and shop at farmers’ markets, but you definitely will not be able to do it without the help of a bike as it is one of the most economical ways to see Europe. But most bikers choose to pedal for the sheer joy of it. Just imagine riding up a beautiful mountain road, going to the very top, hearing birds singing in the treetops, and enjoying a well-earned and glorious downhill run.

B) The most important thing to do before you go for a long ride is to learn which tools to bring for basic repair work, such as patching a flat. If possible, first take a weekend camping trip with everything you’ll need with you. If you don’t already know how to fix your bike, you can ask about classes at your local bike shop. Although you can buy a good touring bike in Europe, you’re better off bringing a bike that you’re sure is the right fit for you as well as your own racks and panniers.

C) Expect rain and bring good bikers’ rain equipment. You’ll also be exposed to the sun, so plan on using plenty of sunscreen. Even if you never ride at night, you should bring a back light for long and unavoidable tunnels. Always wear a helmet as well as biking gloves to guard against unsightly road rash. Beware of the silent biker who might be right behind you, and use hand signals before stopping or turning. Stay off the freeways; smaller roads are nicer for biking, anyway.

D) Use a bike lock to secure your bike and never leave your pump, bag or laptop on your bike if you’re going to step away, even for a moment. Keep your bike inside whenever possible. At hostels, ask if there is a locked bike room, and, if not, ask for a place to put your bike inside overnight. Remember that hotels and many pensions don’t really have rules against taking a bike up to your room. Just do it quietly so the owners and other guests aren’t disturbed.

E) The most rewarding aspect of bicycling in Europe is having the chance to get to know and communicate with new people. Europeans love bicycles, and they are often genuinely impressed when they see a tourist who rejects the view from a tour-bus window in favor of riding through their country on two wheels. Your bike provides an instant topic for conversation, the perfect bridge over cultural and language barriers.

F) A bell is generally required by law in Europe, so you should have one on your bike for giving a multilingual “Hi!” to other bikers as well as for saying “Look out, here I come!” Some countries, such as the Netherlands, have directions and signs just for bikers. For example, a bike in a blue circle indicates a bike route and this sign will get you through even some of the most complicated highway interchanges. A bike in a red circle indicates that bikes are not allowed.

G) Not all tourists use their bikes for long-distance European trips. For example, you can take the train from Paris to Amsterdam, and then use your bike for a few days to get around the city and out to the tulip fields and windmills. In many countries, especially France, Germany, Austria, Belgium, and the Netherlands, train stations offer bikes with very easy rental plans making it possible to pick them up in one place and drop them off somewhere else.

A) – 2
B) – 5
C) – 1
D) – 7
E) – 6
F) – 8
G) – 3

Задание 6 на тексты и заголовки

1. Money string changes source 5. Size matters
2. What in a colour 6. How we got that mark
3. Weight of money 7. Before money comes in
4. From a million pounds to thousands of dollars 8. Free to choose from

A) In early societies people developed barter as a form of proto-money, when they used the things that everyone agreed to accept in trade. Various items have been used by different societies at different times. Thus, for example, Aztecs used cacao beans, Norwegians used butter, the early U.S. colonists used tobacco leaves, and Roman soldiers were paid a salary of salt. On the island of Nauru, the islanders even used rats for this purpose.

B) The first coins were made in the Kingdom of Lydia, located on the territory of Turkey in the 7th century B.C. The Lydians used weighed lumps of metal and stamped them with pictures to confirm their weight (the shape of the coins was unimportant). The process of stamping was called “minting”. In fact, the stamp on the coin was a seal that identified the person who had guaranteed the weight of that coin.

C) The well-known dollar sign has various explanations. Perhaps one of the most widely accepted is that it was the result of the evolution of the Mexican or Spanish “Ps” which was used for pesos. This theory explains that the “S” gradually came to be written over the “P”, developing a close equivalent to the American dollar “$” mark. It was widely used even before the adoption of the United States dollar in 1785.

D) The largest banknote ever issued by the Bank of England was the £1,000,000 note. Designed for use by the UK government only, the notes were canceled after just a few months, allowing very few to escape into private hands. However, just because the notes are out of service nowadays doesn’t mean that they are valueless. In 2008, one of two known surviving notes was sold at auction for almost $120,000.

E) According to the Guinness Book of World Records, the world’s largest banknote is the 100,000-peso note, which is of the size of a standard sheet of paper. It was created by the government of the Philippines in 1998 to celebrate a century of independence from Spanish rule. The note was offered only to collectors, who could purchase one of the limited-edition notes for 180,000 pesos, or about $3,700.

F) American Indians used to have strings of clamshells, which they called wampum and used as money. The process to make wampum was very labor intensive, which increased their value among the European traders. However, the Dutch colonists began to manufacture wampum themselves and eventually became the primary source of wampum, thereby destroying the system which had functioned for centuries.

G) Why are U.S. notes green? No one is really sure. However, in 1929, when the Bureau of Printing and Engraving began making smaller size currency, green continued to be used because its pigment was readily available in large quantities. Green is also relatively high in its resistance to chemical and physical changes, and it has been psychologically identified with the strong and stable credit of the government.

A) – 7
B) – 3
C) – 6
D) – 4
E) – 5
F) – 1
G) – 2

Задание 7 на тексты и заголовки

1. Pay compliments 5. Avoid difficult themes
2. Start with the obvious things 6. It’s not so difficult
3. Ask about their personal problems 7. Pay attention
4. Ask about their personal problems 8. Use friendly body language

A) You’re at a cocktail party. There are lots of people there but there’s nobody that you know. What do you do? The good conversationalist would choose to walk up to someone and introduce yourself. We all know people like that — people who can talk to anyone about anything. How do they do it? Well, the good news is that there is no great secret to small talk. There are just some simple techniques that anyone can use to start a conversation and keep it going.

B) In the film Annie Hall Diane Keaton and Woody Allen have just met and they want to impress each other. While they are talking their inner thought appear in sutitle on the screen. ‘Listen to me-what a jerk’, ‘He probably thinks I’m stupid’. Thoughts like these kill a conversation. So don’t try to impress other people. Just relax and be yourself. When you talk to someone you show that you are interested in them. So you don’t have to talk about deeply important things. Just talk about simple things like the weather or a television programme that you saw.

C) TV journalist Barbara Walters recalls that when she was younger she met the author, Truman Capote. She wanted to tell him that she liked his book. However, she thought that he must be tired of hearing that, so she just mumbled ‘How do you do?’ and turned away. She forgot that everybody likes to receive a compliment and it’s an easy way into a conversation, especially if you follow it up with a question: ‘I really liked your book. How long did it take you to write it?’ or ‘That’s a nice jacket. Where did you buy it?’

D) Your face and your body can communicate much more than your words. If you stand with your arms folded or if you keep looking around the room, the conversation will quickly end because you will look uninterested. Instead, you should make eye contact; keep an open posture and smile. If you send out friendly messages, you will get friendly messages back.

E) A Victorian lady once compared the two British prime ministers, Gladstone and Disraeli. ‘When you speak to Mr Gladstone’, she said, ‘you think he is the most interesting man in the world. But when you speak to Mr Disraeli, you feel that you are the most interesting woman in the world.’ People like to talk about themselves and they will think you are fascinating if you ask questions that allow them to do so.

F) But people often don’t listen properly. They are too busy thinking about the next thing that they themselves want to say. Good conversationalists listen carefully and they show that they are listening, too. They ask questions, nod their head in agreement or say things like ‘Oh that sounds exciting’.

G) There are some topics that you should avoid. Don’t ask people about personal problems, money or religion. It’s also a good idea to avoid the kind of statements that say ‘I’m right. You’re wrong’. It’s all right to express your opinions but soften your comments with expressions such as ‘I’m afraid I have to disagree with you there’. So, there is no secret to successful small talk. Just follow these simple rules and you’ll soon find that you can hold a pleasant conversation with anybody about anything.

A) – 6
B) – 2
C) – 1
D) – 8
E) – 4
F) – 7
G) – 5

Задание 8 на тексты и заголовки

1. Equality has changed manners 5. It’s better to keep silence
2. Nothing has changed 6. The scientific point of you
3. It’s better to think about others 7. Everyone should be polite
4. Familiar behavior 8. The changes aren’t bad

A) People today are less polite than they used to be. This is the view of Dr Andrew St George of Oxford University who has just completed a book on modern social behavior. As the title, The Descent of Manners suggests, he believes that manners have deteriorated since Victorian times. For example, people these days eat while they are walking down the street. They kiss and embrace in public. They push on to buses and trains. Men don’t open doors for women any more or offer a woman their set on a crowded train. The Victorians would be horrified by modern behavior. We went out on to the streets to find out what people think about his ideas. Here are some opinions that we heard.

B) ‘Life is certainly more informal these days, I’ll give you that but I wouldn’t say that’s a bad thing. When I first started work I had to wear a suit and a tie but these days we all wear casual clothes. And everybody was called Mr This and Mrs That but today it’s all first names. In our office everyone even calls the Managing Director ‘Bob’. That was unthinkable when I was younger but I think it’s better now. It’s friendlier — more relaxed.

C) I don’t think it’s true. Things are different nowadays but I wouldn’t say they’re worse. Life has become much faster and people don’t have time for the more formal manners that the Victorians had. I know people eat in the street but I wouldn’t say there’s anything wrong with that. It’s just easier and faster like that.’

D) ‘Things have certainly changed but it isn’t bad manners. It’s all down to equality. The women have been fighting for equal rights for a long time. Why should I give up my seat so that a woman can sit down? If women want equality in jobs and things like that, they can’t expect special treatment for other things, can they? I think equality cuts both ways.’

E) ‘Well, Dr St George is right, isn’t he? I mean, look at those two young people over there. They can hardly keep their hands off each other. They shouldn’t kiss and cuddle like that in public. It’s embarrassing for other people. They can’t understand that it’s unpleasant to be the witness of private relations.’

F) ‘Noise. That’s what I don’t like about things today. Everyone seems to think they can make as much noise as they like without a thought for other people. When you get on a train, some idiot’s probably shouting into a mobile phone or you find yourself sitting next to someone with a personal stereo that’s turned up too loud. And have you tried having a quiet day in the garden lately? Quiet? You can hardly hear yourself with all the lawnmowers, hedge trimmers, and what have you.’

G) ‘I think people today have good manners. Things aren’t as bad as some people like to make out. Most people still queue up for things properly and drivers usually stop for pedestrians at zebra crossing, because I think most people realize that life’s nicer that way. I must admit that people are generally more impatient and less considerate on the road but on the whole I think things are all right.’

A) – 6
B) – 4
C) – 8
D) – 1
E) – 3
F) – 5
G) – 2

Задание 9 на тексты и заголовки

1. You should choose the topic for the conversation. 5. Different people have different points of view.
2. You should start a conversation with other person. 6. You should know the cultures.
3. It’s impossible to please everyone. 7. Principles don’t work everywhere the same.
4. Friendship isn’t strong enough. 8. It’d be better to know only then to deal with.

A) There are questions from a cross-cultural workshop which helps business people to avoid misunderstanding when they deal with people who come from different cultures. Ideas about polite behavior vary from one culture to another and it’s easy to cause offence or feel offered if you don’t know what other cultures expect.

B) Some societies, such as America and Australia, for example, are mobile and very open. People here change jobs and move house quite frequently. As a result they have a lot of relationships that often last only a short time, and they need to get to know people quickly. So it’s normal to have friendly conversations with people that they have just met, and you can talk about things that other cultures would regard as private.

C) On the other hand, there are more crowded and less mobile societies where long-term relationships are more important. A Malaysian or Mexican businessperson, for example, will want to get to know you very well before he or she feels happy to start business. But when you do get to know each other, the relationship becomes much deeper than it would in a mobile society.

D) To Americans, both Europeans and Asians seem cool and formal at first. On the other hand, as a passenger from a less mobile society put it, it’s no fun spending several hours next to a stranger who wants to tell you all about his or her life and asks you all sorts of embarrassing questions that you don’t want to answer.

E) Cross-cultural differences aren’t just a problem for travellers but also for the airlines that carry them. All airlines want to provide the best service but ideas about good service vary from place to place. This can be seen most clearly in the way that problems are deal with.

F) Some societies have ‘universalist’ cultures. These societies have a strong respect for rules, and they treat every person and situation in basically the same way. ‘Particularist’ societies, on the other hand, also have rules but they are less important than the society’s unwritten ideas about what is right or wrong for a particular situation or a particular person. So the formal rules are bent to fit the needs of the situation or the importance of the person.

G) This difference can cause problems. A traveller from a particularist society, India, is checking in for a flight in Germany, a country which has a universalist culture. The India traveller has too much luggage but he explains that he has been away from home for a long time and the suitcases are full of presents for his family. He expects that the check-in clerk will understand his problem and will bend the rules for him. The check-in clerk, however, expects that if she explains the rules, the customer will understand. If he was allowed to have too much luggage, it wouldn’t be fair to the other passengers. But the traveller thinks this is unfair because the other passengers don’t have his problem.

A) – 6
B) – 4
C) – 8
D) – 1
E) – 5
F) – 7
G) – 3

Задание 10 на тексты и заголовки

1. The theme for research. 5. It’s different now.
2. Malls are worse for you. 6. Too much products’ information.
3. Having a lot of choice help you. 7. The small range of goods is better.
4. It’s impossible to be satisfied. 8. Great variety of goods.

A) Do you remember the old days? The time buying a pair of jeans or a mobile phone involved choosing between two or three options. Now, pop into a shop on the high street and you’ll find about 50 different styles of jeans and literally hundreds of mobile phones. But is it better? We try to answer this question.

B) We’ve never had so much choice. Take supermarkets, for example. A local store could offer you 38 types of milk, 107 varieties of pasta, over 170 types of salad dressing and 154 flavors of jam. The average supermarket offers more than 30 000 products with thousands more being added each year. In the words of one shopper, it’s so overwhelming that it just makes you feel awful. If you carefully considered every aspect — ethics, food miles, price, flavor and ingredients — you’d never get round to buying anything, ever.

C) But it isn’t just about food. For every aspect of life there’s an incredible range of products and services on offer — from clothes and gadgets to educational and financial services, not forgetting holidays and entertainment. Access to the Internet has, of course, widened this choice. It does not only offer the products themselves but detailed reviews of product ranges with comparisons of style, price and reliability. These are intended to make our lives easier but in reality just lead to information overload.

D) It now seems that all this choice isn’t good for us. Professor Barry Schwartz, a psychologist from Swarthmore College in Pennsylvania and the author of The Paradox of Choice, says ‘There is vastly too much choice in the modern world and we are paying an enormous price for it. It makes us feel helpless, mentally paralysed and profoundly dissatisfied.’ But shouldn’t we be happy to have all this information and choice? Why is it a problem to have 275 types of breakfast cereal or 10 500 000 hits to an Internet search for ‘holidays in Spain’?

E) The bigger the range of products available, the less satisfied we are with our choice. We imagine that the perfect mobile or jeans must exist in such a big number of products and that we might have chosen the wrong thing. Or that by choosing a particular service or form of entertainment, we might have missed out on something better.

F) Experiments seem to indicate that less choice is better. A team of researchers at Stanford University in the USA ran a test on consumers choosing jam. Those who tested just six jams felt happier and bought more products than consumers who had 24 jams to taste. Another experiment showed that students who were given a smaller range of essay topics produced better works.

G) So what can we do? One technique is simply to choose smaller shops with fewer products. And Professor Schwartz advises, ‘Choose when to choose… Don’t worry about what type of mobile phone package to opt for. Pick a sofa from IKEA in 30 seconds and you’ll feel better than if you spen hours researching sofas — because you won’t know what else you’re missing out on.’

A) – 5
B) – 8
C) – 6
D) – 1
E) – 4
F) – 7
G) – 2

Задание 11 на тексты и заголовки

1. Why men can’t find things. 5. Some professions suit only for men or women.
2. The parts of female brain can work simultaneously. 6. Some professions suit only for men or women.
3. Our brains work differently. 7. The developing of our abilities.
4. Women are better at running the house. 8. You should trust driving to the men.

A) During the last fifty years psychologists have made us believe that differences between men and women are mainly the result of traditional social ‘conditioning’, i.e. the way we are brought up. According to this theory women can be trained to do jobs that men traditionally do, and men can and should become more domesticated. But as the recent scientific research says, gender differences exist because men’s and women’s brains work completely differently and their biological differences mean that they can never think or believe in the same way.

B) In prehistoric times men hunted for food, often alone, and women looked after the children, usually with other women. Men needed to be able to find and kill animals. Women needed the ability to protect the home, to do several things simultaneously and have good communication skills on with the other women. As a result, men’s brains developed better spatial ability and programmed to focus on one specific task. Women developed more connections between the two sides of the brain, which led to be better at doing several things at once.

C) Because the two sides of woman’s brain are better connected, women are generally more talkative and more fluent that men. On average women speak 6800 words a day, and men only 2400! Women solve problems by talking about them, and in a crisis will usually want to discuss the situation and their feelings, while men tend to interrupt and offer solutions, which isn’t what women want at all. This fundamental difference is one of the main causes of the conflicts in male and female relationships.

D) A man sees driving as a test of his spatial abilities — he enjoys driving fast and showing off and consequently has more accidents than women. On the other hand, generally speaking, men are much less likely to get lost when driving because of their well-developed sense of direction. For women driving is mainly about getting safely from A to B, and they have more difficulties in reading maps. They also find parking a car in a small space more difficult and have more trouble distinguishing left from right.

E) Organizing a house involves doing several things at the same time, and women’s brains make them generally better at it than men. In an experiment for British TV six men and six women had to make coffee, wash up, make toast, take a phone message and pack a briefcase in ten minutes. With one exception the men were all worse than the women. They are worse at seeing details which means they usually don’t even notice that the house is dirty or in mess.

F) Men have inherited their ancestor’s long distance ‘tunnel’ vision which was vital for hunting. They can see well and far in one direction but they don’t see things on either side, and they don’t see as well as women close up. This explains why men can never find things in fridges, cupboards and drawers. Women have much wider peripheral vision than men which explains why a woman always seems to find what a man just cannot see.

G) Although some jobs today are still dominated by one or other sex, it is not because of sexual discrimination but basically because men and women are attracted to different jobs. It is logical that men are attracted to careers where spatial skills are vital, such as engineering, architecture, construction and flying. On the other hand, women has superior verbal skills, and they also excel in jobs that require good organizational skills.

A) – 3
B) – 7
C) – 2
D) – 8
E) – 4
F) – 1
G) – 5

Задание 12 на тексты и заголовки

1. Fans from high society. 5. The saint day of the week for Italians.
2. Fans help their teams to win. 6. Three most important things for Italian.
3. Decisive duel. 7. Supporters all over the world.
4. The joy of win. 8. Fierce fight.

A) Our taxi driver has just discovered that one of his passengers supports AC Milan. As he hears the name of his team’s deadly rivals he holds up his Internazionale Football Club season ticket and kisses it as if it were a religious icon. The San Siro stadium appears in the distance, a sight as wonderful as Milan’s beautiful cathedral. Our driver cries: ‘San Siro – La Scala de calciso! A temple!’
This story illustrates the relationship between Italy’s three great loves: religion, opera and football. It’s not just a game. Even a moderate sports fan cannot fail to be moved by the spectacle of Italian football and its faithful supporters.

B) We come as pilgrims in search of the divine sporting experience: a Serie A match at the 80,000 capacity San Siro, home of Milan’s twin giants, Inter and AC Milan. Today Inter is playing at home to Parma. If Parma wins today, they can replace Milan at the top of the league.
The Gazetta dello Sport is building up the match in dramatic style; th Milan sporting newspaper is comparing it to a battle of operas; it is being played under flood lights, two cities have great opera house, and the virtuos performers are the players.

C) The majority of the crowd at the San Siro is well-dressed, with a high percentage of women. In Milan the women sit the expensive seats in their darl glasses and in winter wear their fur coats. Football attracts the rich and powerful in Italian society. It’s a big business, one of Italy’s most profitable industries. Being seen in the right place at the San Siro is as important as attending the first night of an opera at La Scala.

D) It is no coincidence that the game is played on the holy day, Sunday, because football is Italy’s sacred pastime. Italians call it la Giornata — the Day – as if the rest of the week is mere preparation. On Sunday afternoons a million Italians go to watch football, while 25 million listen to match reports on the radio or watch the frantic commentary of TV reporters describing actions from games which cannot be broadcast until the evening.

E) Before kick-off, the Parma fans are shouting at the Inter fans who are replying just as loudly. When the teams arrive on the pitch, the Inter fans let off flares, turn up the volume and wave flags, producing the most electric atmosphere I’ve ever experienced at a sporting event.

F) Inter starts well but after ten minutes Parma scores a beautiful simple goal. Then Inter equalizes but their captain is sent off after a deliberate handball. Inter scores again after thirty-seven minutes from a free kick. Parma gets close again just before half time but Inter scores their third goal. The fans start singing and whistling again. Parma scores again but it’s Inter’s day at the end of the match.

G) The Italian call Serie A ‘the most beautiful league in the world’. And they’re right. Fans from many countries have the opportunity to watch football matches of Italians clubs because International Sport channels broadcast them all the day round. The number of football lovers is growing day by day.

A) – 6
B) – 3
C) – 1
D) – 5
E) – 2
F) – 8
G) – 7

Задание 13 на тексты и заголовки

1. Peaceful life. 5. The terrible figures.
2. Social inequity. 6. Advantageous differences.
3. Some social norms and traditions. 7. The military style of life.
4. Some scientific achievements. 8. The double system of chronology.

A) The Aztecs were great fighters. In fact, they lived to fight. When they arrived to the Valley of Mexico about 700 years ago, the best lands in the valley had already been taken by other Indian tribes. But this didn’t stop the Aztecs: They began to conquer these tribes. By 1500 they had conquered most of Mexico. Aztec boys were trained to be warriors. They were told, ‘The house you were born in is not your true home. Your true home is out there — on the battlefield.’ When they grew up, they stopped cutting their hair until they killed someone in battle!

B) The Aztecs had many gods and goddesses. They believed that they had to give them gifts. They sacrificed about 50000 people a year (that’s a thousand a week, six an hour or one every ten minutes!). Some of the people sacrificed were Aztecs. But most of the people they sacrificed were people captured from other tribes. The Aztecs had many ways of sacrificing people. Here’s just one of them. The Aztecs put the victim on the sacrificial stone,
opened his chest with a knife, took out the heart and gave it to the gods in a
stone vase!

C) Aztec life wasn’t all about sacrifice and wars. They also grew food, made clothes, pots and jewellery. They built towns, bridges and canals. They invented ‘floating gardens’, or chinampos. First, they built a series of rafts and tied them to the shore. Then they put earth on them. This was a very clever way to grow vegetables. It’s hard to imagine modern food without the plants grown in the Valley of Mexico. Thanks to the Aztecs, we can enjoy corn, chilli pepper, pumpkins, tomatoes, turkeys and chocolate (they grew cacao beans)!

D) Chocolate was a special drink that only rich Aztecs drank. Emperor Montezuma, for example, drank 50 cups of hot chocolate every day. It wasn’t sweet, however. It was bitter. Noble Aztecs wore very beautiful clothes decorated with ornaments and feathers. They also carried fans made of feathers. Common people were not allowed to carry fans and wear rich clothes. The Aztecs did not use letters. They wrote in pictures. Aztec literature was written down in books which folded like a fan.

E) By 1500 Tenochtitlan, the capital city of the Aztec Empire, was probably the largest city in the world. When Spanish soldiers first arrived in Tenochtitlan, they were amazed. The streets in the capital city weren’t filled with rubbish and rotting food like the streets of Europe at that time. They were cleaned by thousands of sweepers every day. The Aztecs were the only people in the world at this time in history to have free schools for boys and girls. In Europe only rich people went to school but in the Aztec Empire every child went to school.

F) The Aztecs had a code of behaviour for everything. Here are just some of their rules. Do not mock the old. Do not mock the sick. Do not set a bad example. Do not interrupt the speech of another. Do not make wry faces. Wherever you go, walk with a peaceful air. Do not complain. Aztec boys could get married only after they reached the age of 20. Weddings were usually arranged by matchmakers (usually old women), and nobody asked the girl if she wanted to get married. The girl’s family gave a party for three or four days before the wedding.

G) The Aztecs had a religious calendar and a solar calendar. The religious year had 20 days and 13 numbers (260 days). The solar year had 18 months each 20 days long and 5 spare days (365 days). The most important Aztec god was Huitzilopochtli, their god of sun (and also of war). They truly believed that if they couldn’t make Huitzilopochtli happy, he would refuse to bring up the sun, and the world would end.

A) – 7
B) – 5
C) – 1
D) – 2
E) – 6
F) – 3
G) – 8

Задание 14 на тексты и заголовки

1. The twists and turns of heart affairs. 5. Honour and respect.
2. The contribution to science. 6. A possible witness of wedding.
3. The way to the throne. 7. Elizabeth’s mode of life.
4. Honour and respect. 8. Moscow traces of Elizabeth’s era.

A) The Tretyakov Gallery has recently opened an exhibition to Elizabeth as a rather late celebration of her 300th birthday which was in December 1709. This is one of several places where you can remember the Moscow legacy of the educational empress. Although by the time Elizabeth came to power her father had already moved the capital to St. Petersburg, there are still a few places in Moscow where you can see echoes of the baroque splendour she commissioned there.

B) Moscow University is one of the more enduring aspects of Elizabeth’s legacy. The finest of the old buildings on Mokhovaya Ulitsa was designed by Matvei Kazakov. A statue of the university’s founder, Mikhail Lomonosov, sits outside a neighbouring building and the round pillared chapel is dedicated to St. Tatyana. The traditional day of students, St. Tatyana’s, is on January 25, because that was the date on which the empress signed the decree ordering the creation of Moscow State University in 1755.

C) Like her father, Peter, Elizabeth was born at Kolomenskoye in the huge rambling palace erected by her grandfather, Tsar Alexei. This wooden labyrinth of medieval luxury, famous in its day as the «eighth wonder of the world», was demolished in the 18th century and recently reconstructed (near to Kashirskaya metro station, on the far side of the park from its original site). There are engravings and models of Kolomenskoye in the Tretyakov’s exhibition, along with portraits of Elizabeth’s parents.

D) Three hundred years ago, on March 6,1711, Elizabeth was proclaimed a tsarevna (princess). She was a beautiful princess, a great dancer, fluent in Italian, French and German. Ironically her own education was erratic and she was not particularly literate, preferring outdoor pursuits and pleasures. Her love of horse riding and hunting is reflected in a dedicated section of the exhibition which includes an original 18th-century saddle, bridle and weaponry. A small painting by Georg Grooth from the Tretyakov Gallery’s permanent collection, a contrast to the more formal portraits with full imperial regalia, is one of many to show the empress on horseback.

E) Three hundred years ago, on March 6,1711, Elizabeth was proclaimed a tsarevna (princess). She was a beautiful princess, a great dancer, fluent in Italian, French and German. Ironically her own education was erratic and she was not particularly literate, preferring outdoor pursuits and pleasures. Her love of horse riding and hunting is reflected in a dedicated section of the exhibition which includes an original 18th-century saddle, bridle and weaponry. A small painting by Georg Grooth from the Tretyakov Gallery’s permanent collection, a contrast to the more formal portraits with full imperial regalia, is one of many to show the empress on horseback.

F) Elizabeth was not always in military or hunting gear. Many of the portraits show her with her serene face and fair hair, wearing a succession of fine dresses and gems. The Tretyakov exhibition has reconstructed one of her dresses of peach-coloured silk, lace and gold embroidery. Beautiful and vivacious as she was, very few princes would dare approach Elizabeth while her sister Anna was in power. Anna banished one of Elizabeth’s suitors to Siberia, having cut out his tongue. In the 1730-s, Elizabeth fell in love with a Cossack choirboy, Alexei Razumovsky, and later secretly married him.

G) The church where they supposedly got married was’the Resurrection in Barashakh, on the corner of Ulitsa Pokrovka and Barashevsky Pereulok. The church once had a crown on the dome lending support to the legend but has not been restored to use as a church since the Soviet era. The Moscow Architectural Preservation Society report from 2009 does not speculate about the marriage but confirms that the Resurrection church is ‘an excellent example of the mature Baroque style of the reign of the Empress Elizabeth.’

A) – 8
B) – 2
C) – 5
D) – 7
E) – 3
F) – 1
G) – 6

Задание 15 на тексты и заголовки

1. Likeness of men and animals. 5. Different kinds of activity.
2. The luxury of the exhibition. 6. The Japanese cooking.
3. For buyers. 7. Back to the past.
4. For children specially. 8. The contents of the exhibition.

A) Samurai — Art of War has been so popular since it opened in late November last year that organisers decided to prolong its run until the end of May. The enormous exhibition which takes up more than 1400 square metres includes not only Samurai weaponry but antique household items and clothing as well. If you’re going, give yourself plenty of time — because you not only can see such artefacts but attend lectures, learn martial arts, do some shopping and even have a bite to eat and drink.

B) Visitors will be instantly transported back several hundred years to the Sengoku Period (also known as the Warring States period) when warlords fought for control throughout the small island nation. The most famous battle of them all — the Battle of Sekigahara is depicted in a 3D exhibition. More than 170000 warriors took part in the Battle and it finally tipped the scales in favour of the Tokugawa clan which then ruled Japan for the next 268 years and moved the capital city to Edo (now Tokyo) for the first time in Japanese history.

C) There is a collection of more than two dozen beautiful tsubas; the guard at the end of the grip of bladed Japanese weapons. The ones on display are mostly made after the Battle of Sekigahara — in times of peace, tsubas became far more ornamental, often featuring motifs from a warrior’s family crest. Pieces of highly decorated furniture, patterned with gold leaf and beautifully lacquered, are also on display. Fabulously embroidered robes catch the eye as well, and there are ornamental dolls with alabaster-white faces and dressed as lavishly as a lord, down to the smallest detail.

D) Speaking of grandiose attire, there are several sets of armour on display, so heavy and complicated that one wonders if a warrior could walk in it, let alone wield a katana. Helmets are even more impractical with large horn-like decorations. These horns were added just for pride and intimidation tactics; looking at them, one begins to think that men’s psychologies in battle really don’t differ from those of moose or beetles — the bigger, the shiner, the more bravado the better.

E) The exhibition is not just for your viewing pleasure – there are plenty of programmes in which people can participate. There are demonstrations in various modem martial arts such as judo, karate and kyudo, meditation master classes, tea ceremonies, master classes in origami, shogi (Japanese chess) and sumi-e (Japanese paintings in black and white), lectures (in Russian) and so much more.

F) For gastronomes, March 17 and 18 are must-check dates. From 7 pm to 10 pm on Thursday, March 17, chefs from the Planeta Sushi chain are creating original dishes for the event, and spectators can also participate in some of the food preparation. On the following day, two of Moscow’s top Japanese restaurants will send their chefs to the exhibition to show off some of their best dishes. Tickets for these culinary events will be separate from the other events; a one-day ticket costs 1000 roubles and a two-day ticket — 1800. Tickets are limited, so booking in advance is recommended.

G) If all this were not enough, there’s a huge souvenir selection available. Decorative figures of samurai are going from 2100 to 3 900 roubles, there are books (in Russian and even Japanese) and imitation swords. For your house you can get exotic lamps and there should be some imitation kimonos and obis (sashes) as well.

A) – 8
B) – 7
C) – 2
D) – 1
E) – 5
F) – 6
G) – 3

Задание 16 на тексты и заголовки

1. Real images out of real time. 5. Inspired by new ideas.
2. What to begin with. 6. Extraordinary trends.
3. A many-sided depiction of women. 7. The best time to attend.
4. The general view of the exhibition. 8. Modern Women.

A) Inevitably each year in Moscow there comes a day — usually in March — when the weather is so unremittingly grim that an indoor walk is called for.
The New Tretyakov Gallery is perfect for this purpose, with its spacious, light interior and changing exhibitions. It is open from Tuesdays to Sundays, 10 am—7 pm. And if the weather brightens up you can visit the outdoor sculpture garden, a graveyard of outdated ideological tributes.

B) You can pick up a map to help you to find your way through the highlights from the administrator’s desk on the ground floor. The permanent collection is arranged chronologically, starting on the top floor.
The only drawback is that since the law changed two months ago, foreigners (except diplomats) have to pay an entry fee of 360 roubles (as opposed to 250 for Russians), no matter how long they have lived here or what documents they produce.

C) To commemorate Women’s Day this tour of the permanent exhibitio concentrates on the works of female artists. The 20th century saw a large number of exceptional Soviet women artists, painting in a variety of styles. They range from the colourful, naive style of Natalya Goncharova in a prerevolutionary era of experiment, through the various manifestations of the avant-garde to the uniquely Russian post-modernism of the 1970-s, a decade dominated by women artists.

D) Goncharova was born in 1881 and, like other artists of the time, was inspired by Russian folk culture to create a symbolic style, resonant of centuries of culture but strikingly modern in its composition. In her 1911 Winter, Picking up Brushwood (Room 1), the bent and huddled figures in а grey-and-white landscape with its bare tree blossoming into surreal starry snowflakes, make for a timeless scene that raises a simple, seasonal task into a spiritual ritual. Her embroidery-style Peacock draws on motifs from traditional Russian crafts.

E) The decades that followed were dedicated to extreme theories of art and multiple experimental forms. Alexandra Exter, whose works were gathered for a monumental retrospective in MMOMA last year, has been variously called the «queen of Cubism» or «the amazon of the Avant-garde». Venice (1918), with its bright colours and geometric shapes, is typical of her attempts to recreate reality in the light of new extraordinary tendencies. The huge, carnival-like composition takes up a whole wall of Room 5.

F) In the same decade Lyubov Popova created her Architectonics of Painting (Room 6). Uncompromising lines and blocks of red, white and black rule out any possibility of a figurative interpretation. Popova was one of a group of young artists influenced by Malevich who organised the First Working Group of Constructivists, which had a profound effect on art and architecture in the 1920-s and early 30-s.

G) It is interesting to see the way women themselves are portrayed in art during the subsequent decades. Side Gallery 10, which has a changing selection of graphic works and sculpture, currently displays Lev Bruni’s Maternity (1920), showing a breast-feeding woman lying on a bed, looking directly out of the sketch.
There are also pensive, ink drawings of the poet Anna Akhmatova. Yury Pimenov’s A New Moscow (1937) is another iconic image of Soviet womanhood that generally hangs in Room 16. The shorthaired woman steering a car is at once focal point and observer of the busy city.

A) – 7
B) – 2
C) – 4
D) – 1
E) – 6
F) – 5
G) – 3

Задание 17 на тексты и заголовки

1. Hanami and foreigners. 5. The philosophy of the event.
2. Two types of blossoming. 6. The religious background.
3. Hanami in the language and art. 7. Difference in time.
4. Modern celebrations. 8. Presents.

A) Hanami is the Japanese traditional custom of enjoying the beauty of flowers, especially cherry blossoms — sakura. The practice of Hanami is more than a thousand years old, and is still very popular in Japan today. A more ancient form of hanami also exists in Japan, which celebrates the plum blossoms instead of cherry blossoms. This kind of hanami is popular among older people, because they are more calm than the sakura parties, which usually involve younger people and can sometimes be very crowded and noisy.

B) The practice of hanami is many centuries old. The sakura blossoms were considered sacred by the Japanese, and they were so important that they still are a cultural symbol of Japan. People believed in gods’ existence inside the trees, and the hanami party was used in the beginning to divine that year’s harvest and to announce the season of planting rice. Those who went to the hanami made offerings at the root of sakura trees, and after the ceremony, they took part in the offering drinking sake.

C) Emperor Saga (786—842) of the Heian Period adopted this custom and celebrated parties to view the flowers with sake and feasts under the blossoming branches of sakura trees in the Imperial Court in Kyoto. This «temporary» view of life is very popular in Japanese culture and is usually considered as an admirable form of existence; for example, in the samurai’s principle of life ending when it’s still beautiful and strong, instead of slowly getting old and weak. How much easier things would be in spring without the sakura blossoms, because their existence reminded us that life is very short!

D) Hanami was used as a term that meant cherry blossom viewing for the first time in the Heian era novel. From then on, in tanka and in haiku poetry, flowers meant sakura, and the terms hanami and flower party were only used to mean sakura blossom viewing. Poems were written praising the delicate flowers which were seen as a metaphor for life itself; beautiful but lasting for a very short time.

E) The Japanese people continue the tradition of hanami, gathering in great numbers wherever the flowering trees are found. Thousands of people fill the parks to hold feasts under the flowering trees, and sometimes these parties go on until late at night. In more than half of Japan, the cherry blossoming days come at the same time of the beginning of school and work after vacation. Usually, people go to the parks to keep the best places to celebrate hanami with friends, family and company coworkers many hours or even days before. In cities like Tokyo, it’s also common to have celebrations under the sakura at night.

F) The blosscjm forecast is announced each year by the Japan: Meteorological Agency and is watched with attention by those who plan to celebrate hanami because the blossoms last for very little time, usually no more than two weeks. The first cherry blossoms happen in the subtropical southern islands of Okinawa, while on the northern island of Hokkaido, they bloom much later. In most large cities like Tokyo, Kyoto and Osaka, the cherry blossom season normally takes place around the end of March and the beginning of April.

G) Recently, hanami festivities have also become popular outside of Japan. Smaller hanami celebrations in Korea, Philippines and China (where the custom was first created) also take place traditionally. In the United States, hanami has also become popular. In 1912 Japan gave 3000 sakura trees as a gift to the United States to celebrate the nations’ friendship. These trees were planted in Washington, D.C., and another 3800 gifted trees were also taken there in 1956. These sakura trees continue to be a popular tourist attraction, and every year the National Cherry Blossom Festival takes place when they bloom in early spring.

A) – 2
B) – 6
C) – 5
D) – 3
E) – 4
F) – 7
G) – 1

Задание 18 на тексты и заголовки

1. Studying from home. 5. Studying and living at school.
2. Personal development is important. 6. Specialized schools.
3. Modern tools for studying.
4. Finding the right activity for
7. Assessing academic progress.
4. Finding the right activity for you. 8. High-tech school.

A) In the earliest days of computers the only computer education was about computers. We and computers have come a long way since those days. Now computers have invaded into every aspect of modern life. Education is no exception. Students can use word processors for writing, spreadsheets for mathematics and science and databases for organizing information. Lately, the Internet has become a recognized way of getting information.

B) There are many advantages to distance learning. For homeschoolers it’s a great way to safely get a head start on college before completing high school. In addition, many students don’t have the ability to leave home for maybe family or work obligations. Another huge advantage is the cost savings. Through distance learning, you avoid room and board fees that will have to be paid by a traditional student.

C) In Great Britain many children go to boarding schools. A good boarding school can be an excellent placement for an orphaned child because everyone is treated equally and fairly there. Many parents with non-traditional careers or those undergoing difficult transitions like divorce find boarding schools excellent alternatives. Boarding school can help children grow in independence, and friendship formed in boarding school often lasts a lifetime.

D) Considered by many to be a diamond in the rough of the Parkside area, the school boasts a curriculum that encourages technological literacy. The 170 local 9th grade students don’t carry any books or pencils. The school supplies every student with their own laptop. They create multimedia presentations with Microsoft PowerPoint, receive assignments via e-mail and conduct research online. So far, the unique program has had positive results.

E) Chorister’s schools are educational establishments which have a special emphasis on religious choir singing. These schools are usually attached to a cathedral, church or chapel, where the school choir sings. Choir schools do not exclusively educate choristers: about 15 000 pupils are taught at chorister schools in the UK but only around 1000 of those are choristers. Tony Blair, for example, attended The Chorister School but was not himself a chorister.

F) For the majority of college and university students, involvement in extracurricular activities plays an essential role in the collegiate experience. Students become involved in extracurricular activities not only for entertainment, social and enjoyment purposes but most importantly to gain and improve skills. A wide and diversified range of extracurricular activities exists on U.S. campuses, meeting a variety of student interests.

G) The test is an important benchmark in ensuring that students will be successful in meeting the challenges they will face either in college or the workplace. If they are not able to meet the standards of the exam, how can we expect them to be successful in life? Examinations can be traumatic for both students and their teachers. But just because nobody really enjoys them, we should not disregard them as a necessary part of the education process.

A) – 3
B) – 1
C) – 5
D) – 8
E) – 6
F) – 2
G) – 7

Задание 19 на тексты и заголовки

1. Preparingfor a job interview. 5. Sharing impressions with a friend.
2. Successful career. 6. Job offer.
3. Challenging job. 7. Enjoyable job.
4. Personality. 8. Applying for a job.

A) A bright sixteen-or-seventeen-year-old is needed to work on Saturdays from nine till six on our market stall selling clothes. Our stock consists of a wide range of trousers, jeans and shirts of modern design. No previous experience is necessary as we provide full training on the job. The main qualities required are an ability to deal with the customers in a positive and friendly manner.

B) You are a natural optimist. You are happy most of the time and always expect the best. However, you are often careless and you don’t always work hard enough because you think everything will be fine. Remember, nobody is lucky all the time.

C) I was twenty-three when I went to Cosmopolitan as a secretary. I had to do all the usual secretarial jobs like answering the phone and typing letters. And at eleven o’clock I made the coffee, and I had to clean the fridge once a month. After a year I began to train as a sub-editor and then got my National Certificate — a qualification for British journalists. After a time I became feature editor on Cosmopolitan. My secretarial training has been incredibly useful.

D) Find out as much as you can about your prospective employers and the business they are in. Think about the questions you are most likely to be asked, and at least three questions you would like to ask them. Don’t only talk about what you hope to get from the firm. Say what you can do for them and all the things in your previous experience and training that you think will be useful in the new job.

E) I feel I would be suitable for this position because I have good organizational skills, and I greatly enjoy going out and meeting new people. I have experience of this kind of work. Last summer I was employed by Imperial Hotels as a tour organizer and arranged excursions to places of interest. I also worked for London Life last Christmas, which involved taking groups of tourists around the capital. Please do not hesitate to contact me if you require any further information. I look forward to hearing from you.

F) At the moment I’m staying at a hotel in Athens and I’m doing quite a lot of sightseeing. You would not believe it but the job doesn’t seem to be too demanding. Most of the time I deal with bookings and answer inquiries. But I suppose it’ll be different when the tourist season starts next month. Even now restaurants are beginning to get busier. Next, I’m moving to the island of Crete, which is where most of the people in the company live. See you soon.

G) There are Search and Rescue Services all around the coast of Britain. They must be ready to go out at any time of the day or night and in any weather. Sometimes they must rescue people in the mountains in a storm at night. It isn’t easy to navigate a helicopter in the dark just a few metres from a mountain. The crews work on 24-hour shifts, so if a ship sinks or if someon falls down a cliff, Search and Rescue will be there to help.

A) – 6
B) – 4
C) – 2
D) – 1
E) – 8
F) – 5
G) – 3

Задание 20 на тексты и заголовки

1. A worried motorist. 5. Help is available.
2. Emotional pressure. 6. You’ll never drive again.
3. An expensive fear to develop. 7. The terror of driving.
4. Health problems that medicine can’t cure. 8. In demand.

A) There are hundreds of motorists who dislike motorway driving. Many cannot bear to be stuck in a traffic jam. Others hate the thought of driving, through a tunnel. For some, however, driving can be so terrifying that staying at home is preferable.

B) For these individuals help is at hand. Many are turning to a former traffic policeman for help. Jim Nap has set up courses in London and Paris for those who find motorway driving difficult.

C) Since he started the course, Nap has heard some terrible stories. He says driving in large cities can be extremely stressful. ‘It can make you nervous. It can affect your life if you can’t cope.’ He has realised that this stress can work its way through to other parts of people’s lives. He has talked to people whose marriages have broken up as a result of driving stress. He has also found that ten in particular often become more aggressive when they are forced to drive.

D) Those on the course have all suffered similar symptoms. Many are physically sick when they drive in heavy traffic. Others suffer with breathing problems and even blackouts. These are drivers who have deadlines or business people with important meetings to attend that are most likely to feel stressed.

E) Others find they have a problem driving on roads or passing a specific location where they may have had problems before. Memories of car accidents can cause a nervous driver to develop a ‘mental block’. Nap says he knows of a man who drove an extra ten miles every day so he could avoid a particular road. Over the years the cost in time and money was enormous but he was unable to drive anywhere near the road.

F) Another man on the course did anything he could to avoid driving through a tunnel at London’s Heathrow airport. Nap explains it was because the man had once seen a photo in a newspaper of a car which had caught fire there. The sight of this caused him great anxiety.

G) There are currently 180 people waiting to go on the course. The sessions vary between three and five hours. Apart from the three people Nap has not been able to help, the course has been largely successful.

A) – 7
B) – 5
C) – 2
D) – 4
E) – 3
F) – 1
G) – 8

Задание 21 на тексты и заголовки

1. Cheap and suitable for everyone. 5. What you will learn in a day.
2. More things you can learn later. 6. When something goes wrong.
3. Only available for a short time. 7. Everyone needs to learn.
4. Buy and learn at the same time. 8. Special arrangements available.

A) If you’re 16 years old or younger, the chances are that you have been using computers for as long as you can remember. For older people, who find it difficult to work out what all those buttons are for on their mobile phones, computers can be just a tiny bit frightening. However, computers are here to stay and even if you’ve managed to avoid them so far, you know that you are just delaying the inevitable moment when you will have to learn how to use them.

B) Now help is at hand with Computers for Beginners, a new computer course starting at the local college at the end of April which not only gives you expert guidance but actually gives you a brand new laptop as a part of the price. This unique approach enables people to take the first step on an exciting journey that will quickly enable them to use a computer with e3se and efficiency, even if they currently have no idea how to even switch one on.

C) With prices starting at £599, the one-day course — including th computer — costs no more than most of us would pay for a computer alone. There is also an option to buy a printer, digital camera and accessories to go with it. So whether you want a computer for business, to help you study or just for fun, Computers for Beginners is the perfect place to start.

D) The course teaches you how to use your computer, hands-on, on the day, so any queries can be immediately addressed by an experienced course tutor. You will begin with the basics, including unpacking it and getting it set up to suit you, before moving on to producing and editing documents, a basic introduction to the Internet and how to use email.

E) The course ensures that there is plenty of help and support available, so throughout the day there are technicians on hand to help you with any problems that may arise. This will be particularly welcome news for anyone who has spent hours on hold to computer company helplines, with only a huge phone bill to show for it at the end of the call.

F) After the initial course, Computers for Beginners also offers follow-up courses to help you deepen your knowledge and increase your confidence. You can learn more about using the Internet, including buying and selling goods online, and also take a more in-depth look at creating documents and how to secure your computer from common viruses. Alternatively, you can move on to the world of digital photography and learn to use your computer, camera and printer together to create perfect pictures. You will also learn how to print them and email them to friends.

G) If you have particular requirements that aren’t covered in the basic courses, Computers for Beginners can also create custom-made programmes to help meet your needs. Tutors are available to come to your home or your business, to create a course that teaches you what you want to know.

A) – 7
B) – 4
C) – 1
D) – 5
E) – 6
F) – 2
G) – 8