ОГЭ: Тексты и заголовки

Установление соответствия между текстами и заголовками является одним из заданий на чтение ОГЭ по английскому языку. Здесь приводятся ряд заданий на отработку умения соотносить тексты и заголовки.

Задание 1 >>
Задание 2 >>
Задание 3 >>
Задание 4 >>
Задание 5 >>
Задание 6 >>
Задание 7 >>

Задание 1 на тексты и заголовки

Задание

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами и их заголовками: к каждому тексту, обозначенному буквами А–G, подберите соответствующий заголовок, обозначенный цифрами 1–8. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

текстыответ

1. The scientific explanation
2. The real shape
3. A lucky sign
4. Some tips
5. Places without rainbows
6. A personal vision
7. A bridge between worlds
8. Impossible to catch

A. Two people never see the same rainbow. Each person sees a different one. It happens because the raindrops are constantly moving so the rainbow is always changing too. Each time you see a rainbow it is unique and it will never be the same! In addition, everyone sees colours differently according to the light and how their eyes interpret it.

B. A rainbow is an optical phenomenon that is seen in the atmosphere. It appears in the sky when the sun’s light is reflected by the raindrops. A rainbow always appears during or immediately after showers when the sun is shining and the air contains raindrops. As a result, a spectrum of colours is seen in the sky. It takes the shape of a multicoloured arc.

C. Many cultures see the rainbow as a road, a connection between earth and heaven (the place where God lives). Legends say that it goes below the earth at the horizon and then comes back up again. In this way it makes a permanent link between what is above and below, between life and death. In some myths the rainbow is compared to a staircase connecting earth to heaven.

D. We all believe that the rainbow is arch-shaped. The funny thing is that it’s actually a circle. The reason we don’t see the other half of the rainbow is because we cannot see below the horizon. However, the higher we are above the ground, the more of the rainbow’s circle we can see. That is why, from an airplane in flight, a rainbow will appear as a complete circle with the shadow of the airplane in the centre.

E. In many cultures there is a belief that seeing a rainbow is good. Legends say that if you dig at the end of a rainbow, you’ll find a pot of gold. Rainbows are also seen after a storm, showing that the weather is getting better, and there is hope after the storm. This is why they are associated with rescue and good fortune. If people happen to get married on such a day, it is said that they will enjoy a very happy life together.

F. You can never reach the end of a rainbow. A rainbow is all light and water. It is always in front of you while your back is to the sun. As you move, the rainbow that your eye sees moves as well and it will always ‘move away’ at the same speed that you are moving. No matter how hard you try, a rainbow will always be as far away from you as it was before you started to move towards it.

G. To see a rainbow you have to remember some points. First, you should be standing with the sun behind you. Secondly, the rain should be in front of you. The most impressive rainbows appear when half of the sky is still dark with clouds and the other half is clear. The best time to see a rainbow is on a warm day in the early morning after sunrise or late afternoon before sunset. Rainbows are often seen near waterfalls and fountains.

A – 6
B – 1
C – 7
D – 2
E – 3
F – 8
G – 4

Задание 2 на тексты и заголовки

Задание

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами и их заголовками: к каждому тексту, обозначенному буквами А–G, подберите соответствующий заголовок, обозначенный цифрами 1–8. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

текстыответ

1. The inhabitants of Bath
2. Tourism in Bath
3. Bath’s architecture
4. Climate in Bath
5. Location in the UK .
6. The geography of Bath
7. Culture and the arts
8. Bath’s ancient history

A. Bath is a world famous city known for its thermal baths, which are a major tourist attraction. The city is situated in the southwest of England, near the country’s west coast and about 150 kilometres from London. Bath is in the area of England that is known as Somerset, a county bordered on the north by the Bristol Channel.

B. The baths for which Bath is known were built around the year 60. It was the Romans who established the city as a spa. They did so about 20 years after they arrived in England. They constructed the baths, along with a temple, on a hillside near hot springs. Over the next 300 years, structures would be added to the baths, making them grander.

C. Over the years, Bath slowly became an important city. Wealthy people began moving there in the 1500s. In 1767, construction began on the Royal Crescent, a group of buildings that form a semicircle and look out onto a park. Ihe buildings were constructed in the Georgian style. Afterward, more buildings were built in the same style, giving Bath the character it has today.

D. Bath is situated in the Avon Valley. The city is built on and surrounded by hills, which have a maximum height of 238 metres. The valley, which is about 18 metres above sea level, runs through the city centre. The River Avon runs through this area, and because it is a low-lying area, the city sometimes suffers from floods during rainy seasons.

E. Presently, there are just over 80,000 people living in the city itself. The greater region of Bath, which includes nearby parts of Somerset, has a total population of around 160,000. The majority of people living in Bath are of English birth, with just under 3% of people being from places outside the UK. A resident of Bath is known as a Bathonian.

F. As it is located in the southwest of England, Bath generally has winters that are warmer than other parts of the country. Its summers are usually cool and rainy, and the temperature doesn’t go much over 20°Celsius. Average rainfall is 700 millimetres, which is spread out evenly throughout the seasons. Its windiest period is in the winter, while summers tend to have light breezes.

G. The city of Bath has five theatres, and performances are put on by both national and international companies. There are also important concerts that take place in Bath, as well as literature and film festivals. One such festival decides who in Bath is that years greatest poet, singer or storyteller. These various events attract thousands of people to the city.

A – 5
B – 8
C – 3
D – 6
E – 1
F – 4
G – 7

Задание 3 на тексты и заголовки

Задание

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами и их заголовками: к каждому тексту, обозначенному буквами А–G, подберите соответствующий заголовок, обозначенный цифрами 1–8. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

текстыответ

1. The history of digital cameras
2. How a digital camera works
3. Operating a digital camera
4. Features of digital cameras
5. Additional equipment
6. Types of digital cameras
7. Professional uses today
8. An immediate advantage

A. Cameras have come a long way since the time of our grandparents. The days of using film cameras are almost gone. Even the digital camera has come far since its beginning. Now there are digital cameras that fit in your pocket, and there are those for use among professional photographers. Even the movie industry has taken to using a kind of digital camera for shooting films.

B. Digital cameras perform a wide range of functions. They can zoom in on an object, just like a film camera, but they can also zoom in digitally for an even closer shot. They can make the colours brighter or darker, and they can make the image sharper. They can even make the photo come out in black and white, for a more artistic look.

C. One great feature of a digital camera is the ability to delete unwanted photos. As soon as you take a photo, you can view it on the camera screen and decide if you want to keep it. If not, you can erase it from the cameras memory and take another photo. It’s better than having the photo developed from film, which takes time and money.

D. A digital camera records an image in basically the same way as a film camera. The difference is that, with a film camera, a chemical process occurs to create the image. With a digital camera, the process is electronic. A sensor records the colours and details of an image, which then appear on the cameras screen.

E. You can use a digital camera just as you would a film camera. An obvious difference is that with a digital camera, you don’t have to load film. You basically just point and shoot. As with any other camera, though, you have to use the flash in dark places, and you can adjust the lens to take photos from far away or up close.

F. You can attach extra lenses to digital cameras to take special pictures, just as you can with a film camera. Unlike film cameras, though, a digital camera also has a cable that you can use to attach it to a computer, to save your images for emailing and storing on your computers hard drive, or sending to a printer for easy printing.

G. The first digital cameras were used in military and scientific settings. This was around the time of their invention in 1975. These early cameras weighed about 3 kilograms and took black and white photos. A few years later, digital cameras were used in medical facilities. It wasn’t until the early 1990s that digital cameras were made available to consumers.

A – 6
B – 4
C – 8
D – 2
E – 3
F – 5
G – 1

Задание 4 на тексты и заголовки

Задание

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами и их заголовками: к каждому тексту, обозначенному буквами А–G, подберите соответствующий заголовок, обозначенный цифрами 1–8. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

текстыответ

1. Health problems and the young
2. Dangerous lifestyles
3. Health problems and the aged
4. Preventing health problems
5. Getting help with health problems
6. Health and your diet
7. Exercise and health
8. Work and health

A. Staying healthy is just as important as getting help when you do fall ill. Doctors recommend getting vaccinated against certain diseases at a young age, or perhaps when there is a flu epidemic and many people suffer from and spread the disease. “Prevention is better than cure” as the old saying goes. It is easier to get ill than it is to get better, so take care.

B. Healthy food is essential for the body and the mind. You are what you eat, so if you eat junk food or drink a lot of sugary drinks, think what it is doing to your body. Another old saying is “an apple a day keeps the doctor away”, pointing out the benefits of eating simple, healthy food.

C. A good work out can keep you fit and healthy, but too much can cause problems. There are two forms of exercise, resistant and aerobic, and both have their advantages, but doctors recommend combining both forms for maximum benefit. It can be difficult to find time to go to the gym, because of work or family obligations, but just a few minutes a week can work wonders.

D. It is not so easy to combine healthy living with your everyday routine, and sometimes a person’s job can present problems. For example, if you work long hours, you can become over-tired and your body gets run down. Other jobs involve a lot of pressure, which can cause stress, leading to various illnesses. As always, moderation and care are the best defence against the threat of illness.

E. Some groups of people are especially vulnerable to illness. Babies, for example, need a clean environment as their bodies cannot yet deal with certain germs or bacteria, and can catch all sorts of diseases very easily. They need a lot of sleep and a special diet, too, to ensure healthy growth. Each new family should get the best advice they can from an expert on how to raise a healthy child.

F. Both the young and the elderly are high-risk groups. Age brings wisdom, but it can also bring health problems. As your body grows older, it naturally grows weaker, and special care must be taken at this stage in life. Perhaps some gentle exercise or a change in diet becomes necessary, on the advice of your medical consultant.

G. If you do become ill, you must act quickly. You could make an appointment with your doctor, or if it is more serious, visit the local hospital. Your doctor might refer you to a specialist if the problem requires expert attention, or your hospital visit might turn into a longer stay if you need an operation. The important thing is – seek help!

A – 4
B – 6
C – 7
D – 8
E – 1
F – 3
G – 5

Задание 5 на тексты и заголовки

Задание

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами и их заголовками: к каждому тексту, обозначенному буквами А–G, подберите соответствующий заголовок, обозначенный цифрами 1–8. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

текстыответ

1. Family problems
2. First signs of recognition
3. A giant of science
4. Beaten by a competitor
5. Other achievements
6. His life is remembered
7. Proved right in the end
8. A comfortable beginning

A. Dmitri Mendeleev was a Russian chemist and inventor who developed the Periodic Law and a periodic table of chemical elements. This allowed him to predict the properties of elements that had not yet been discovered at the time. He is internationally recognised as one of the greats of the world of science and scientific research.

B. Dmitri Mendeleev was born in 1834 in the village of Verkhnie Aremzyani near the Siberian city of Tobolsk. He was the youngest child in a very large family. Although the exact number is not known, he had between eleven and sixteen brothers and sisters. In his early years, the family was quite well-off, as Mendeleevs father was a teacher of fine arts, philosophy and politics.

C. The Mendeleev family fortunes changed when Dmitri’s father became blind and had to give up teaching. His wife was now forced to work to support the family, and she re-opened an old glass factory which belonged to her family. But later, the factory was destroyed in a fire and, because of poverty, the family had to move to Saint Petersburg.

D. Dmitri Mendeleev began his scientific career teaching chemistry, and by 1864 he had been made a professor at Saint Petersburg State University. He soon began to be noticed by chemists around the world, and it wasn’t long before he had turned Saint Petersburg into an international centre of excellence in the field of chemistry research.

E. Mendeleev was not the first to work on a periodic table of elements. Another scientist, Lothar Meyer from Germany, published an almost identical table a few months after Mendeleev. However, only Mendeleevs table contained predictions of undiscovered elements. Many scientists didn’t believe his predictions, but two of the missing elements were later discovered, establishing without doubt the accuracy of his table.

F. Apart from his work in the field of chemistry research, Mendeleev was a founder member of the Russian Chemical Society. He also helped establish the first oil refinery in Russia and was, at one time, director of the Russian Bureau of Weights and Measures. Finally, Mendeleev is also credited with having introduced the metric system into Russia.

G. Mendeleev died at the age of 72 in 1907. His life is commemorated with a museum in his honour at Saint Petersburg State University. A street in Saint Petersburg is named after him, as well as a crater on the far side of the moon. The Russian Academy of Sciences annually awards the Mendeleev Gold Medal for achievements in chemical science and technology.

A – 3
B – 8
C – 1
D – 2
E – 7
F – 5
G – 6

Задание 6 на тексты и заголовки

Задание

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами и их заголовками: к каждому тексту, обозначенному буквами А–G, подберите соответствующий заголовок, обозначенный цифрами 1–8. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

текстыответ

1. Very popular with children
2. Common ingredients
3. World-famous meals
4. Royal influence
5. British cuisine and other cultures
6. Characteristics of British food
7. Holiday meal with a history
8. Local dishes

A. A standard British meal is often described as being simple to prepare with a few high-quality ingredients. There is typically a main dish, baked or possibly fried, with one or two kinds of vegetable. There is often a sauce to accompany the meal, and dishes generally consist of foods grown within the country.

B. Over the centuries, British cuisine has changed to include foods from other countries, especially India-large parts of which were ruled by Britain until 1947. Indian food slowly made its way into British cuisine, and there are combinations of British and Indian dishes in the UK. The same is true in Gibraltar, a British territory at the tip of Spain, which has British food with a strong Spanish influence.

C. Some common British dishes have direct links with a particular area of the country. Yorkshire pudding for example, is often served with meat dishes and Christmas dinner. It comes from the town of York in the north of England. A tasty meat pie known as a Cornish pasty originates from Cornwall, in the south-west of England.

D. As with other cuisines, locally-grown food is mainly used in British cuisine. Agriculture in Britain has long centred round growing potatoes and green vegetables, and producing high-quality beef. Likewise, the British fishing industry has made fish and chips one of the most popular meals.

E. People around the world know one or two British dishes. These include the “full English breakfast” complete with bacon, eggs and sausage, and Sunday roast, which has roast beef, potatoes, vegetables and Yorkshire pudding. Perhaps a lesser-known type of British food is kippers – a small type of fish, salted and smoked, which is often served for breakfast.

F. Afternoon tea, consisting of a cup of tea served with biscuits or scones, has long been a part of British cuisine. Catharine, the Portuguese wife of King Charles II, introduced the idea of drinking tea in the afternoon to the English court in the 17th century. Aristocratic ladies soon copied this, and eventually both upper and middle classes in Britain began doing it.

G. Christmas dinner, a special meal eaten in many parts of the English-speaking world on Christmas Day, is another traditional part of British cuisine. It consists of turkey, stuffing, and a variety of sauces and vegetables. The meal did not always consist of turkey. This began in the 16th century, and King Henry VIII is thought to have been the first monarch to eat turkey for his Christmas meal.

A – 6
B – 5
C – 8
D – 2
E – 3
F – 4
G – 7

Задание 7 на тексты и заголовки

Задание

Прочитайте тексты и установите соответствие между текстами и их заголовками: к каждому тексту, обозначенному буквами А–G, подберите соответствующий заголовок, обозначенный цифрами 1–8. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

текстыответ

1. Saharan climate change
2. Where tourists stay
3. Saharan watering holes
4. Getting around in the Sahara
5. When to go there
6. Population centres in the Sahara
7. Very hot and very cold
8. Crossing the whole Sahara

A. The Sahara is the one of the world’s hottest and largest deserts. Although it stretches the whole width of Africa, there are few routes that go all the way from one side to the other. It’s possible to travel along the western edge, from Morocco to Senegal, or the eastern edge, through Egypt and Sudan. A third route goes right through the centre, from Algeria into Niger.

B. Many people who visit the Sahara start in North Africa. Few people travel deep into the desert, but those who do can stay in desert camps organised by travel groups. During the day you can explore the desert on the back of a camel, or stay in your tent until the temperature drops, which happens when the sun goes down.

C. Daytime temperatures in the Sahara are often well over 40°C, so obviously you must wear clothing to protect yourself from the sun, and you need to keep plenty of water handy. Surprisingly, though, you also need blankets and extra clothing to stay warm at night, as the thermometer can drop to nearly freezing.

D. There are very few places to satisfy your thirst in the Sahara. It is not completely dry, though. There are small lakes that support a little plant life and a few nearby tribes. Some are large enough to support thousands of people. These areas are often far from one another; travelling between them can take days on camel.

E. There are some towns and cities in the Sahara. One is El Oued, Algeria, whose people use water from an underground river to grow food. Timbuktu, Mali, was once part of a 14th century empire and is now a UNESCO world heritage site. Beni-Izguen, Algeria, is a religious centre surrounded by high walls that protect brightly-coloured homes.

F. It is possible to drive in the Sahara by car. However, none of the roads goes very far. One of the oldest ways is by camel. Of course, it is not wise for tourists to use this method to cross the entire Sahara, but for daily trips from desert camps, it’s a smart way to explore places with a guide.

G. Winter is the best season to visit the region, as temperatures are slightly easier to handle. It is even possible to experience a rain shower, or (in extremely rare cases) snow. For this reason, most tourists choose to visit the Sahara during this time of the year.

A – 8
B – 2
C – 7
D – 3
E – 6
F – 4
G – 5