ОГЭ: соответствие утверждений тексту

На этой странице представлены задания на чтение, которые являются частью ОГЭ по английскому языку. Вам надо: a) прочитать текст и утверждения к нему, б) определить степень соответствия утверждений тексту.

Задание 1 >>
Задание 2 >>
Задание 3 >>
Задание 4 >>
Задание 5 >>

Задание 6 >>
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Задание 8 >>
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Задание 1 на текст и утверждения

Прочитайте текст. Определите, какие из приведенных ниже утверждений соответствуют содержанию текста (True), какие не соответствуют (False) и о чем в тексте не сказано, т.е. на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (Not Stated).

текстответ

In the autumn of 1900, a team of Greek sponge divers were returning from the coast of Africa. A dangerous storm started, which forced them to take shelter near the small Greek island of Antikythera. While the crew waited for the storm to pass, the captain of the boat sent one of his divers to search the seabed for sponges.

The diver, Elias Stadiatis, discovered the remains of a 2,000-year-old shipwreck at the bottom of the sea, 60 metres below. When he returned to the surface, he was so excited about what he’d found that the captain thought he had been affected by too much carbon dioxide. But when the captain himself went down to take a look, he saw that his crewman really had found ancient treasures. He immediately told the Greek authorities, and the sponge divers, with the assistance of the Greek navy, began to recover the wonderful things.

In the following months, using only very basic diving equipment, the divers managed to bring to the surface an amazing number of ancient artefacts, including bronze and marble statues, delicate glassware and gold jewellery. All of this had remained undisturbed for nearly two thousand years. The operation only stopped because conditions became too dangerous to continue.

One of the items that was discovered was a piece of bronze. It was in such poor condition that no one was sure what it was. One archaeologist suggested that it was some kind of clockwork mechanism, but no one believed him and it was put away for storage in a museum. It was nearly fifty years before anyone else took any interest in the item.

In 1951, a British scientist called Derek Price began to investigate the item. He discovered that it contained a complex gear mechanism and suggested that it was used to make calculations about the position of planets. It is regarded as the worlds first example of an analog computer. Today, it is world famous, and is known as ‘the Antikythera mechanism’. Before the discovery of this mechanism, it was believed that no complex clockwork machines had been invented until the 14th century. Scientists continue to investigate just how it was used.

The site of the shipwreck continues to fascinate modern archaeologists, who are keen to make further diving expeditions in the area. But diving in dangerous waters at depths of between sixty and seventy metres is expensive and difficult, so there have been only a few expeditions over the last hundred years or so. If its difficult now, just think how much harder it was for a team of Greek divers over a hundred years ago.

1) The storm made the divers stop while on their way back to Africa.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

2) Elias Stadiatis was the best diver on the boat.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

3) Sailors helped the sponge divers collect the treasures.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

4) Some of the divers were injured while diving.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

5) One of the discoveries from the shipwreck was ignored for many years.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

6) The mechanism changed ideas about the history of clockwork machines.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

7) Scientists have stopped studying the Antikythera mechanism.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

8) No one has explored the shipwreck site for about a century.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

1) – False
2) – Not Stated
3) – True
4) – Not Stated
5) – True
6) – True
7) – False
8) – False

Задание 2 на текст и утверждения

Прочитайте текст. Определите, какие из приведенных ниже утверждений соответствуют содержанию текста (True), какие не соответствуют (False) и о чем в тексте не сказано, т.е. на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (Not Stated).

текстответ

Richard III was an English king who ruled England from 1483 until his death in battle in 1485. He is one of the most famous people in English history – so how is it possible that, after being king for only two years, he is still so widely remembered?

In the years after his death, much was written about the character of Richard III. Some of this shows a positive side of the man and his period as king, but most was rather negative. Why?

Firstly, the man who defeated Richard in battle became king next, and his family ruled England for much of the next 120 years. Also, many people hated Richard while he was alive. Since historians of the time often wrote histories based on opinions rather than facts, they made sure his name was remembered for negative reasons. They wrote about Richards desire for power, claiming it was something he would kill for, and perhaps this was true. It didn’t help that Richard III had a physical condition that gave him a strangely twisted back and one shoulder much higher than the other.

That is the description of Richard III which is shown in William Shakespeare’s 1592 play, Richard III. The brilliant play is a large part of the reason why we remember Richard III today. Shakespeare created his character as an incredibly evil but intelligent and funny king who, in the end, died for wrongly claiming power.

Richard III came to power after his brother, Edward IV, suddenly died. Edward IV s young son, Edward V, was supposed to become king, but a group of powerful people decided the young boy did not have the right to rule, and so Richard III became king. Edward V and his younger brother were never seen again, leading people to believe – rightly or wrongly – that Richard III had the two boys killed.

Today we are more aware of the positive things that Richard III did in his short time as king. For example, he created a court where poor people could have legal cases heard for a low cost. He also had English laws, which were written in traditional French, translated into English.

Another reason we know of Richard III today was the recent discovery of his bones beneath a car park in Leicester, in central England. After his defeat and death on the battlefield, he was buried nearby, with no official ceremony, in an old church which was later destroyed. Five hundred years later, after years of searching through historical records, a team of archaeologists began digging where they believed he was buried. On the very first day, they found the bones of a man with a twisted back and battle wounds. Further research and tests proved that the bones were those of Richard III.

1) After Richard III died, people only said bad things about him.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

2) Richard’s right shoulder was higher than his left shoulder.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

3) In Shakespeare’s play, we find out why Richard III was evil.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

4) Richard III did not want his brother’s son to become king.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

5) It’s possible Richard III was responsible for the deaths of his nephews.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

6) Before Richard, English laws were usually written in French.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

7) Richard was buried a long way from where he died.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

8) It took archaeologists years of digging to find the bones of Richard III.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

1) – False
2) – Not Stated
3) – Not Stated
4) – Not Stated
5) – True
6) – True
7) – False
8) – False

Задание 3 на текст и утверждения

Прочитайте текст. Определите, какие из приведенных ниже утверждений соответствуют содержанию текста (True), какие не соответствуют (False) и о чем в тексте не сказано, т.е. на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (Not Stated).

текстответ

Many different countries have a national day, and 12th June is one of the newest. This is the day when the Russian people celebrate the beginning of modern Russian democracy. On that date in 1990, a document declaring Russian state sovereignty was signed by the country’s leaders, marking the start of the ‘new’ state of Russia as a nation. 12th June was declared a public holiday in 1994, and three years later someone suggested changing the name of the day, from the original ‘Day of Signing the Declaration of State Sovereignty’. This was finally done in 2002, and to this day 12th June is known as ‘Russia Day’ Because it is a national holiday, most banks, schools and public offices are closed. Public transport still runs, but with reduced timetables in most places. The Russian flag is flown and the two-headed eagle, the symbol of the Russian Federation, is displayed everywhere. As you would expect, the state puts on a magnificent display, and around the country various official events take place to celebrate the day.

In the capital, Moscow, there’s a big parade through the streets, and sporting events often take place outside the Kremlin. The President of Russia addresses the nation and takes the opportunity to present medals and awards to important and famous people in the arts and sciences.

Perhaps because it is such a new national holiday, some people are a little confused how it should be celebrated. Musical events and firework displays are common across the country. Some people take advantage of the day to celebrate their cultural heritage by dressing in traditional clothes and demonstrating the traditional dances of the various regions. A more modern way of celebrating may include attending pop concerts or going for a picnic in the countryside. Environmentalists have sometimes used the day to draw attention to green issues while still expressing their national pride.

Some Russian communities abroad also celebrate the day. For example, in 2012 a formal dinner in Chicago, USA was attended by various VIPs representing both America and Russia, and included a speech given by the Russian Ambassador to the US. Russian classical music was performed and the dinner featured traditional Russian dishes, while soldiers from both countries were honoured. This celebrated Russia Day and helped to bring Russians and Americans closer together.

Despite this variety of focus, the true meaning of the day is clear. No matter how people celebrate on 12th June, they are celebrating the relationship of a country to its past, present, and future, and – above all – its people.

1) No other country celebrates a National Day on 12th June.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

2) In 2002, ‘Russia Day’ was on a Saturday.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

3) Buses and trains operate as usual in most places on 12th June.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

4) On 12th June, the Russian President gives a speech at midday.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

5) There are only a few firework displays on 12th June.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

6) Some people in other countries also celebrate Russia Day.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

7) The dinner in 2012 helped make some people become better friends.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

8) People celebrated Russia Day more in the past than they do now.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

1) – Not Stated
2) – Not Stated
3) – False
4) – Not Stated
5) – False
6) – True
7) – True
8) – Not Stated

Задание 4 на текст и утверждения

Прочитайте текст. Определите, какие из приведенных ниже утверждений соответствуют содержанию текста (True), какие не соответствуют (False) и о чем в тексте не сказано, т.е. на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (Not Stated).

текстответ

The Maya are a group of people living in Central America and southern Mexico, whose history dates back an incredible 4,000 years. The height of their civilisation is sometimes known as the ‘Classic period’. This lasted from about 300 to 900AD, and then suddenly ended. Archaeologists today still ask, ‘Why did this happen?’

There are many possible explanations for the end of the Classic Maya civilisation, but no-one knows for sure exactly what happened. One possibility is that some groups of foreigners invaded and destroyed some of the most important Maya cities. However, most archaeologists and historians who have studied this subject think this explanation is unlikely.

Another possibility involves the expansion of the civilisation during the 700s. Some buildings from that period remain unfinished. Why? The suggestion is that poor Maya citizens were forced to carry out the hard building work. Because they were badly treated, they fought back. This would explain why the buildings were never completed. However, scientific research has shown that the buildings weren’t actually very difficult to build. What’s more, other civilisations that experienced problems like these did not just disappear.

A third possibility involves the collapse of trade. Some archaeologists believe that the Maya were closely connected to the city of Teotihuacan by trade. This great city ruled central Mexico, and its collapse in 750AD changed trade routes. However, it has been discovered that the Mayas connection with this city was strong around 500AD. This means that by the time Teotihuacan fell, the Maya were already independent of the city’s influence.

One of the most likely explanations is a change in the weather, with not enough rain leading to an extremely bad drought. Scientists have been able to work out rainfall amounts at the time from soil samples. It appears that the area suffered from a mega-drought’ and the severe lack of water was enough to starve the Maya of food. Critics of this idea say that only the northern regions have been studied and the Maya civilisation was stronger in the south. Also, certain Maya cities in the north survived until 900AD or even later, but this is possibly because they were located closer to the sea and could survive on fish.

Whatever its cause, the end of the Maya Classic period did not bring a complete end to its people. Today, there are still millions of them living in the area, speaking one or more of the 21 Mayan languages still in existence.

1) The ‘Classic period’ lasted for more than 4,000 years.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

2) Archaeologists often have meetings with historians to discuss the Maya civilisation.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

3) Not all of the buildings the Maya started building in the 700s were finished.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

4) Maya buildings were usually very expensive to build.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

5) Around 500AD, the city of Teotihuacan ruled over the Maya civilisation.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

6) Scientists have no idea how much rain fell during the Classic period.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

7) Some Maya cities continued after the end of the Classic period.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

8) Maya people today all speak the same language.

1) – False
2) – Not Stated
3) – True
4) – Not Stated
5) – False
6) – False
7) – True
8) – False

Задание 5 на текст и утверждения

Прочитайте текст. Определите, какие из приведенных ниже утверждений соответствуют содержанию текста (True), какие не соответствуют (False) и о чем в тексте не сказано, т.е. на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (Not Stated).

текстответ

The Siberian tiger is the largest type of feline living today, measuring up to 3 metres or more from its nose to the tip of its tail. It is an endangered species and much has been done to protect it. For a while, these protection efforts met with some success. Recently, though, their numbers have begun to drop again.

Conservation efforts began in the early 1990s, and in 2005 there were nearly 400 Siberian tigers living in their natural habitat. Their population remained about the same during those dozen years or so, but in late 2006, the number of tigers killed by hunters increased again. Siberian tigers have a beautiful coat of fur, which is the main reason why they are hunted – even though in 1947 the practice of hunting them was made illegal in Russia, where the Siberian tiger mainly makes its home.

Wars – especially the Russian Civil War, which brought the soldiers of both armies to the Vladivostok area – have also had a terrible effect on the species’ numbers.

There were about 250 Siberian tigers in the 1980s, and illegal hunting threatened to make them extinct within a short time. A plan called the Siberian Tiger Project was launched in 1992, and researchers arrived in the area to monitor the population and study their ways of life in order to better help them survive.

The specific region where Siberian tigers live – the Far East – is an area also including small parts of China and North Korea. The tigers were once found in regions inside both those countries, but in North Korea it has been a long time since one was seen. In China, which co-operates with Russia in conservation efforts, they still exist. The two governments work together to raise awareness about the difficulties the animal faces and both send police protection to the tigers’ habitat.

Various ideas have been suggested for increasing the population of the Siberian tiger. One is that a home could be made for them in Central Asia, the natural habitat of the Caspian tiger, since it is a very close relative of the Siberian tiger. However, the problem with this suggestion is that there is not a large enough habitat available in this area to support them. Another idea is to introduce the tigers into a wildlife park being set up in Russia. Unfortunately, the park is in the planning stages and it could be several years before the tigers would be able to live there.

Although there are few Siberian tigers located in the wild, there are about a thousand living in zoos around the world. While it is not an ideal habitat, it is a safe environment for the tigers, and they are able to reproduce, which means it is unlikely that they will become extinct.

1) In 1990, there were fewer than 300 Siberian tigers in the world.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

2) In Russia, a person has the right to hunt a Siberian tiger.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

3) A lot of Siberian tigers were killed in a battle near Vladivostok.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

4) The Siberian Tiger Project was only concerned with stopping illegal hunting.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

5) North Korea participates in conservation efforts.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

6) Both Russia and China tell citizens about the problems Siberian tigers experience.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

7) Siberian tigers could live with other tigers if they had enough space.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

8) More Siberian tigers live in zoos than anywhere else.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

1) – Not Stated
2) – False
3) – Not Stated
4) – False
5) – False
6) – True
7) – True
8) – True

Задание 6 на текст и утверждения

Прочитайте текст. Определите, какие из приведенных ниже утверждений соответствуют содержанию текста (True), какие не соответствуют (False) и о чем в тексте не сказано, т.е. на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (Not Stated).

текстответ

The United Kingdom, or UK, is made up of England, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales. Wales has two official languages, English and Welsh. Welsh is spoken by slightly fewer than 600,000 people, which is about 20% of the population of Wales. Why don’t more people use the language to communicate?

There are a few reasons which help to explain this. In the past, Welsh schoolchildren were punished for speaking any language other than English at school. The result of this was that Welsh gradually came to be used less and less. It wasn’t until the 1960s that things began to change in its favour.

In 1962, the Welsh Language Society was formed, and fought hard to increase the use of Welsh in Wales. It did a number of things to try to achieve this. Sometimes these were illegal, but they were never violent. They wanted two main things. The first was for Welsh to be taught in schools. The second was to set up a radio station and a television station that would broadcast in Welsh. Eventually, the Welsh radio station Radio Cymru was created. After a few more years, a Welsh-language television channel was started. Then, Welsh children began taking lessons in the language at school, and street signs are now in both English and Welsh. Much of this is due to the Welsh Language Society’s efforts.

In spite of this, however, fewer and fewer people speak Welsh nowadays. It’s a struggle to keep the language alive. While there are more places where Welsh is spoken, its not completely a part of daily life. Private businesses are not required to offer services in Welsh. This means, for example, that Welsh-speaking citizens may not be able to use Welsh when they need to deal with a mobile phone company. They cant always arrange holidays in Wrelsh either, and it isn’t possible for them to use Wrelsh when they shop in certain supermarkets.

Another problem is that Wales has a high unemployment rate, which forces young people to move to another part of the UK in order to find a job, or even to go abroad. When this happens, they generally have no need to speak Welsh at all. They might know the language as a part of their history and culture, but it is of little or no use in their jobs or daily life.

The Welsh Language Society has done a lot to make sure Welsh remains a living language. In fact, Welsh has become a semi-official language of the European Union. This means that people are allowed to speak Welsh if they want to in some EU meetings around Europe.

1) The average person in Wales can speak Welsh.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

2) For a long time, education in Wales was given only in English.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

3) At one point, the Welsh language nearly died out.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

4) The Welsh Language Society sometimes hurt people during its actions.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

5) Traffic police are required to speak both English and Welsh.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

6) Many common activities in Wales today are carried out in English.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

7) People who leave Wales to find work still make good use of Welsh.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

8) People have to speak English in all EU meetings.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

1) – False
2) – True
3) – Not Stated
4) – False
5) – Not Stated
6) – True
7) – False
8) – False

Задание 7 на текст и утверждения

Прочитайте текст. Определите, какие из приведенных ниже утверждений соответствуют содержанию текста (True), какие не соответствуют (False) и о чем в тексте не сказано, т.е. на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (Not Stated).

текстответ

George Stephenson was a famous engineer who earned the name ‘The Father of the Railway’. This is because of his famous steam engine called Rocket, which he built in 1829. He had built trains before, and his son would go on to build more, but this was the most famous and most important train of them all. Rocket included some new design features that proved so efficient that it became the model for trains for the next 150 years.

Stephenson was born in 1781. His fathers job involved maintaining steam engines at the local coal mine. George first learnt about steam engines from his father, as did Georges son, Robert, many years later. At the age of 14, George was working with his father, stripping and repairing the great machines.

George decided to learn to read and write to improve himself, going to school three nights a week after work. His intelligence and inventiveness became obvious when he invented a new type of lamp which coal miners could use underground. He turned his attention to the steam engine, and saw how the machines would run better on rails or tracks, rather than on roads.

He kept working on his ideas, and by 1814, he had made his first ‘railway locomotive’. This used a steam engine to transport things along a track rather than a road. Then, five years later, the owners of a local coal mine hired him to build them a railway. In 1825, his Locomotion Number 1 became the first passenger train, running on track he built between two English towns. George himself drove the first train, which carried 450 passengers at 15 miles per hour (25km/h).

When Locomotion Number 1 exploded and killed the driver in 1828, it was clear that some improvements needed to be made. A year later, when the owners of a new line between the major cities of Liverpool and Manchester offered a prize for the best design, Stephenson saw his chance to put his new idea to the test.

Three engines took part in the competition; the other two broke down, and only Stephenson’s newly-designed engine completed the test. This engine, Rocket, was also faster than the others, and so won the right to carry passengers along the line.

On September 15,1830, huge crowds turned out to see the first journey, including the Prime Minister and other important figures. The age of steam had really begun. Tragically, the first fatal railway accident happened on that first day, when the Member of Parliament for Liverpool was knocked over and killed by Rocket.

1) Rocket was the first train Stephenson built.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

2) Robert’s grandfather worked with steam-powered machinery.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

3) George was the first member of his family to attend school.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

4) George was employed by a mining company in 1819.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

5) There were technical problems with the first passenger train.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

6) Locomotion Number 1 was the fastest train in the world at that time.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

7) Rocket did not finish the competition in 1829.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

8) A politician who was watching Rocket in 1830 died.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

1) – False
2) – True
3) – Not Stated
4) – True
5) – True
6) – Not Stated
7) – False
8) – True

Задание 8 на текст и утверждения

Прочитайте текст. Определите, какие из приведенных ниже утверждений соответствуют содержанию текста (True), какие не соответствуют (False) и о чем в тексте не сказано, т.е. на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (Not Stated).

текстответ

Mary Shelley, the wife of the well-known English poet Percy Shelley, was also a famous writer. She is best known for her novel Frankenstein, one of the world’s greatest horror stories. Apart from Frankenstein, Mary wrote many other novels and short stories, as well as editing her husbands works after his death.

Mary was born in London in 1797. Her father was a political philosopher. Her mother was a philosopher and early feminist. Unfortunately, Marys mother died eleven days after her daughters birth. Mary was brought up by her father and, when her father later remarried, her stepmother.

Mary was only 16 years old when she fell in love with the young poet Percy Shelley. It caused a scandal in English society when they ran away together. Marys relations with her own family were very difficult because of her relationship with Percy. Even more severely, his family never forgave them or made peace with them. Even after Percy’s death, his father refused to meet Mary for the rest of his life.

In 1816, the Shelleys spent the summer months by Lake Geneva in Switzerland, where they were joined by other friends, including the poet Lord Byron. As it was a cold, wet summer, the party of friends would often sit in Byrons villa, talking late into the night by the light of a warm log fire. One night, someone suggested that everyone should come up with a ghost story to entertain them. Only the 19-year-old Mary Shelley managed to produce a horror story. This became the much-loved novel Frankenstein.

Mary Shelley suffered many misfortunes in her life. She had four children, but only one son, named after his father, survived into adulthood. Mary mourned the loss of her other children her whole life. Then, in 1822, while the Shelleys were living abroad in Italy, Percy drowned in a boating accident, at the age of 29. Mary was a widow at 25 years of age. She never remarried.

After the death of her husband, Mary returned to England with her young son. Her husband’s family offered a very small amount of financial help, so Mary had to become a full-time writer to support herself and her son. It was only after the death of Percy’s father that she was finally free from financial difficulties.

Mary Shelley died at the age of 53, probably from a brain tumour, although historians are not completely sure. She is buried alongside her mother and father in a churchyard in Bournemouth, Dorset. Although her husband was buried in a cemetery in Rome, his heart was removed and is buried with his wife in the grave in Bournemouth.

1) Many of Mary Shelley’s books were horror stories.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

2) Mary Shelley’s mother died when Mary was a baby.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

3) Mary and Percy met for the first time in London.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

4) Mary finally became close friends with Percy’s father.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

5) All the guests at Byron’s villa created a ghost story.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

6) Mary Shelley was deeply affected by the deaths of her children.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

7) Percy Shelley’s family offered Mary no money at all.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

8) There is some doubt about the cause of Mary’s death.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

1) – Not Stated
2) – True
3) – Not Stated
4) – False
5) – False
6) – True
7) – False
8) – True

Задание 9 на текст и утверждения

Прочитайте текст. Определите, какие из приведенных ниже утверждений соответствуют содержанию текста (True), какие не соответствуют (False) и о чем в тексте не сказано, т.е. на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (Not Stated).

текстответ

Russia’s northern regions are on the Arctic Ocean, which is a sea that is mostly frozen throughout the year. There is sea travel from Russia’s shores into this frozen world, but it takes more than a normal ship to get through it. How do Russians manage to make their way through all the ice?

One way they can do so is with the Yamal. The Yamal is an icebreaker – that is, it’s a ship that is specially designed to break through the layer of ice which covers the sea in the Arctic and Antarctic. There are many types of icebreakers used by countries that border the Arctic Ocean, but the Yamal is a special kind. It is powered by nuclear energy, and not traditional petrol or diesel engines. Because of this, the Yamal is one of the most powerful ships in the world, allowing it to smash through ice with ease. The ship is made of thick, strong metal that can break through the ice during its travels. It also has special air jets which are located on the bottom of the ship. These jets can push out 24 square metres of air per second, which helps to split the ice.

The Yamal is named after the region where it normally stays in harbour – the Yamal Peninsula, an area of land in north-western Siberia that is rich in natural gas resources. Specifically, the term ‘Yamal’ means the ‘End of the Land’ in the language of the Nenets, a tribe that lives in the region.

The Yamal was originally designed to keep lanes of travel open for other ships to use in the icy waters. It has never really been used for this purpose, however. Instead, since it was launched in October 1992, it has been used mainly to carry passengers on trips into the Arctic region. It has special features such as a swimming pool, gym, sauna and volleyball court. One of its tourist cruises was to celebrate the millennium in 2000, when it travelled all the way to the North Pole, making it only the 12th such ship ever to do so.

Another voyage of the Yamal, during August and September 2009, was to collect the staff and equipment from a number of manned ice stations positioned throughout the Arctic, because these stations were scheduled to close. Each station was manned by 18 Arctic explorers, who conducted research in the region. The explorers, their companion dogs and 150 tonnes of supplies and equipment were all placed on the Yamal.

The Yamal is impressive to look at. The lower part of the ship is painted black, the very bottom is red, and the upper part is an attractive shade of orange. On the very front of the ship is the outline of a mouth with sharp teeth, to ‘frighten’ the ice it encounters.

1) Ordinary ships have trouble travelling through the Arctic Ocean.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

2) The Yamal uses nuclear energy to melt ice in its path.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

3) The materials the ship is built of help it travel through the Arctic Ocean.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

4) The Nenets sometimes travel using the Yamal.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

5) The Yamal was built to help other ships travel through the Arctic.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

6) The only ship to travel to the North Pole in the year 2000 was the Yamal.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

7) The Yamal carried a total of 18 Arctic explorers during its 2009 travels.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

8) The picture of the mouth is there to make people feel scared.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

1) – True
2) – False
3) – True
4) – Not Stated
5) – True
6) – Not Stated
7) – False
8) – False

Задание 10 на текст и утверждения

Прочитайте текст. Определите, какие из приведенных ниже утверждений соответствуют содержанию текста (True), какие не соответствуют (False) и о чем в тексте не сказано, т.е. на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (Not Stated).

текстответ

George Orwell was a 20th century British author who is best known for writing the books Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four. These two books together have sold more copies than any two books by any other writer in the same century. They are about how society is controlled and the effects which this has on individuals.

Born Eric Arthur Blair in 1903, he used the name George Orwell as a pen name for his books. He chose the name ‘Orwell’ because he loved the River Orwell in Suffolk, England, where he lived with his parents during his early years as a writer. He was educated at Eton, England’s most famous public school for boys from upper-class families, although his academic performance there was not very good. When he was 19, he took a job as a policeman in Burma, where his grandmother lived. He did well at this job and was admired by the local people for his sense of fairness. After falling ill, Orwell returned to England in his mid-twenties and became a writer.

His experiences as a policeman gave him ideas for his early work. In the beginning, he didn’t have much success as a writer of novels and short stories; he did much better as a journalist. In fact, during most of his career, he was well known in this role and far less recognised as an author. His essays and newspaper columns focused mainly on the living and working conditions of poor people.

In the 1930s, he went to Spain to fight in the Spanish Civil War. There, he saw how different people supporting the Republican army spent more time arguing with and lying about each other than fighting the enemy. While fighting in this war, he was wounded in the neck and had to return to England. Although Orwell never lost his sympathy for working-class people, his wartime experiences changed how he felt about their political leaders.

These new feelings were clearly shown when he wrote his two most famous books. The first one, Animal Farm, is about a group of animals, all with human characteristics and roles, on a farm which the animals have taken over from its human owner. A small group of pigs gain more and more power, and treat the other animals far worse than the human farmer did. His second famous book, Nineteen Eighty-Four, is about a man who works for an all-powerful government that controls every part of peoples lives. The main character, Winston Smith, is unhappy with the situation and struggles to change things that cant be changed.

These two books show us important things about society in a clear and thrilling way. Both are still taught in British and American schools, and they remain Orwell’s greatest gift to future generations.

1) George Orwell wrote more books than any other 20th century writer.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

2) As a student at Eton, he soon showed how clever he was.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

3) As a young man, Orwell left England and became a policeman.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

4) Orwell wanted to do more than journalism in his early writing career.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

5) People living in poor conditions often praised Orwell for his work.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

6) His time in Spain changed his feelings about working-class people.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

7) Orwell wrote Nineteen Eighty-Four five years after writing Animal Farm.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

8) Orwell wanted his books to be used in classrooms.

1. True
2. False
3. Not stated

1) – Not stated
2) – False
3) – True
4) – True
5) – Not stated
6) – False
7) – Not stated
8) – Not stated