Тренировочное задание 40 на подбор заголовков к текстам.
A. A Major Tourist Attraction
В. Visiting Times
С. From Homestead to Mine
D. A Hazardous Occupation
E. The Legacy of Mining
F. The Pit’s Contribution to Australia
G. Darling Pit’s Facilities
H. Darling Pit Today
1. Situated in the Great Barrier Mountains, near the headwaters of the Darling River, is one of Australia’s earliest industrial monuments: the Darling Pit. Darling Pit is the mine that started industrial development in Australia providing coal to power the factories, to help run ships and the railways, to make steel, and to heat homes.
2. Begun in 1890 on Paul Darling’s farmstead when resources of coal and iron were found near the surface, the Darling Pit was rapidly transformed from a simple drift mine into the world’s biggest, and deepest, coal mine. 94 miles of tunnels extending up to 600 feet below ground were all dug by hand. At its height in 1850, over 15,000 men were employed in the pit and it produced over 1,5 million tons of coal annually. It continued as a working mine until 1978 and is now preserved as a museum and a monument to the men who worked here.
3. A glance from the surrounding hillside as you approach the Darling Pit will show you how mining transformed the local scenery as well as the local economy. The Darling Pit retains its nineteenth century ironworks, pit head machinery, 3,000 terraced houses built to accommodate the work-force, a chapel and 4 pubs. Even the original farmhouse survives. This tight-knit community is now surrounded by slag heaps; the mountains of soil and other waste dug out to get to the coal.
4. Mining was a dangerous occupation in the nineteenth century. Most mines suffered deaths from tunnel collapse and from flooding. Pneumoconiosis, an inflammation of the lungs brought about by prolonged exposure to coal dust, was also a common problem and historical works from the last century refer to the ease of identifying ex-miners by the Darling cough. The major problem in the Darling mine, however, was the prevalence of inflammable coal gas in the area, which resulted in the underground explosions of 1854 and 1910. Monuments to the 485 miners who died in these tragedies can be seen in the chapel.
5. The Darling Pit is still a real colliery, even though it no longer produces coal. There is still a staff of over 100 who maintain the mine and assist the visitors. The Pit now allows tourists and visitors to undertake guided tours of the works, including a tour of selected shafts underground. Many of the guides are ex-miners who will explain the workings of the mine and tell you many stories from their personal experience. Helmets, lamps and protective clothing are provided, although visitors are reminded that it can be cold underground and they are advised to wear something warm as well as sensible protective footwear.
6. The Darling Pit now has all the amenities needed for the major tourist attraction. Many of the buildings on the surface are open for exploration: the engine house at the pit ahead, the blacksmith’s shop, the pit head baths and the stables (remember pit ponies provided much power for moving coal before the electric engine became available). The miners’ pubs now feature as canteens and restaurants, offering a range of fast and high quality food and drink. There are picnic areas, toilets, a gift shop and even a photographic studio. The miners’ chapel is also available for those who would like to spend time in quiet contemplation or prayer.
7. Opening hours are 9.30 am to 5.00 pm daily in summer from the beginning of April to the end of September. During winter opening is from 10.00 am to 4.00 pm. The site is open every day including weekends and bank holidays except for Christmas Day. Please note, however, that the underground section of the Pit may be closed for maintenance during the winter and visitors should ring in advance to avoid disappointment. A complete tour will take at least 3 hours. Group rates are available, as are concessions for school parties. There is a free car park.
1 – F
2 – C
3 – E
4 – D
5 – H
6 – G
7 – B