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A. King Arthur in literature
1. Did King Arthur really exist is the question over which historians have puzzled for ages. The familiar legends we have about King Arthur were first written down by a Welsh monk of the twelfth century, called Geoffrey of Monmouth, who includes him in his «History of the Kings of Britain».
2. However, by far the most famous account of the deeds of Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table was the “Morte d’Arthur” written in the fifteenth century by Thomas Malory who wrote his stories about Arthur while he was in prison. Thomas Malory made Arthur and his Knights appear as medieval figures wearing armour, riding war-horses, taking part in tournaments and living in castles.
3. Usually, though not invariably, the Knights were chivalrous, rescuing fair ladies in distress, fighting against evil kings and foul monsters. The Knights fall under spells, and Arthur himself owes his throne to the wizard Merlin, who, we are told, is a son of the Devil.
4. It is likely, however, that the legends of Arthur are much, much older. Some of the tales may even go back to the time before the Romans came to Britain. By far the oldest names in Britain are those of English mountains and rivers, and Arthur gives his name to a number of hills and mountains, such as Arthur’s Seat near Edinburgh, от Arthur’s Chair in Wales. Some places, like Tintagel Castle in Cornwall, where Arthur is supposed to have lived, are traditionally associated with him, although they do not bear his name.
5. Some historians believe that the real Arthur was a British war chief, possibly descended from a noble Roman family, who led the fight against the Saxon invaders. The age of the real Arthur is often called the «Dark Age» because, as a result of the breakdown of government after the Roman withdrawal, little is known about Britain at this time.
1 – D
2 – A
3 – E
4 – F
5 – C