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Over the past 50 years human culture has changed dramatically. Modern society now actually discourages physical activity. Urban and non-urban communities are centered on the automobile — discouraging walking and bicycling by children and teens. Those activities dropped by 50% in children ages 5-15 since 1977. Because of concerns about safety, children spend less time outside playing. TV, computers, hand-held children’s electronic games make young people less active. And over three quarters of the children spend at least two hours in front of a TV or computer screen every day, whatever their social and economic background. But children from more disadvantaged backgrounds expend significantly more physical energy than children from more privileged backgrounds. Schools have provided less time for physical activity programs by focusing more on traditional academics, and many communities have failed to invest in close-to-home recreational facilities such as parks and recreation centres.
Some British researches suggest that girls are even much less physically active than boys from a very early age. The researches have found that teenage girls are less likely to take vigorous exercise than their male counterparts. They also show that girls are almost half as physically active as boys well before they reach their teens. The girls also tend to receive less encouragement than boys, and some parents adopted an over-protective attitude, for instance not letting their daughters ride their bicycles in public areas.
These results raise concerns because inactivity in childhood can influence activity patterns as an adult, and because inactive children risk health problems in later life. Some researchers believe that inactivity patterns, do tend to track from childhood to adulthood where inactivity is a risk factor for obesity and heart disease. Thus the lack of physical activity and appropriate nutrition in childhood has serious consequences. Meanwhile there are many benefits of regular physical activity for children. Daily physical activity helps build and maintain healthy bones, muscles, and joints; helps control weight, build lean muscle, and reduce fat; prevents or delays the development of high blood pressure; reduces feelings of depression and anxiety; and through its effects on mental health, physical activity may help increase students’ capacity for learning. Regular physical activity has long been regarded as an important component of a healthy lifestyle.
Parents should encourage their children to participate in physical activity, provide opportunities for them to participate in physical activity, participate with them in these physical activities. It is also important that parents, particularly mothers, provided a good role model. As for teenagers, they should incorporate physical activity into their daily routine (e.g., by walking or biking rather than riding in; by taking the stairs rather than using the elevator or escalator; by doing chores that require effort, such as vacuuming and mowing the lawn).
If modern society is to change to one that is more physically active, health organizations and educational institutions must communicate to the public the amounts and types of physical activity that are needed to prevent disease and promote health. These organizations and institutions, communities, and individuals must also implement effective strategies that promote the adoption of physically active lifestyles.
ВОПРОС 1 The article characterises the children’s life in modern society as:
1) intellectually demanding;
2) technologically attractive;
3) involving little exercise;
4) rich in dangerous adventures.
ВОПРОС 2 The article suggests that one of the reasons for girls being less physically active than boys is the following:
1) by nature girls are not so physically strong as boys are;
2) parents are usually more over-protective of girls than of boys;
3) there is not much physical activity in girls’ daily routine;
4) girls often prefer TV watching to doing physical exercises.
ВОПРОС 3 The article says that physical inactivity in childhood:
1) does not make a negative impact on a person’s life as an adult;
2) deprive children of enjoyable childhood and healthy lifestyle;
3) influences children’s academic achievements and performance;
4) causes serious healthy problems when children reach adulthood.
ВОПРОС 4 From the writer’s point of view, parents should:
1) tell their kids what games their parents played in their childhood and in their teenage time;
2) discuss the importance of different physical activities for their development and health;
3) be physically active themselves and let their children participate with them in different physical activities;
4) encourage children to find those physical activities which they will enjoy most of all.
ВОПРОС 4 This article says that it is the children from well-to-do families who:
1) as a rule participate in physical activities with their parents;
2) are not enough involved in physical activities at home;
3) like such activities as walking, biking, skating or dancing;
4) are always brought up to be in a very good physical shape.
ВОПРОС 6 This article suggests that if teenagers are involved in physical activities on a regular basis, they will:
1) make their relationship with their parents much better;
2) discover activities accessible to all young people;
3) improve their school performance;
4) prepare them for lifelong physical fitness.
ВОПРОС 7 This article mostly aims at:
1) finding people who could invest money in recreational facilities offering activities that are attractive to all young people;
2) suggesting some new ideas about effective ways of monitoring youth physical activity and fitness in the UK;
3) suggesting what should be done by all health providers to promote better health through physical activity in society;
4) describing community sports and recreation programs that are effective for all young people.
ВОПРОС 1: – 3
ВОПРОС 2: – 2
ВОПРОС 3: – 4
ВОПРОС 4: – 3
ВОПРОС 5: – 2
ВОПРОС 6: – 4
ВОПРОС 7: – 3